Navigation Links
Warning images for cigarette packs proposed by Europe do not make enough emotional impact

The warning images Brussels proposes to include on tobacco packages in order to reduce consumption do not make the desired impact on smokers because they only find some of them really unpleasant. So, if the European Commission wants to improve the efficacy of its anti-smoking campaigns, it should produce a new set of images that make a stronger emotional impact.

These are some of the conclusions of research conducted in the Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment at the University of Granada by Miguel ngel Muoz, Luis Ciria y Jaime Vila Castelar, to assess the emotional impact of the tobacco-warning images on cigarette packs proposed by the European Commission.

University of Granada researchers have conducted two complementary studies on the same topic. In the firstpublished in "Tobacco Control"they recorded the subjective opinions of 597 participants, grouped into six age ranges: 13-14, 15-16, 17-18, 19-20, 21-22 and over 23 years. The participants were shown the European Commission's proposed set of 35 tobacco-warning images (Directive 2003/641/CE, dated 5/09/ 2003).

Measuring impact with physiological tests

In the second study, recently presented at the "I Iberian Conference on the Clinical Physiology of Health and Sport (I Congreso Ibrico de Psicologa Clnica de la Salud y el Deporte), researchers used objective physiological tests to measure the efficacy of these images. In a sample of 50 subjects aged between 19 and 23 years, they analysed variables like perspiration, movement of the zygomatic muscle (which reflects smiling) or of the corrugator muscle (located between the eyebrows).

They also studied the subjects' head movement on seeing the images. "When movement is backwards, it means there is an avoidance response, in other words, the person moves away because the image is unpleasant," says Miguel ngel Muoz, principal researcher. If the head movement is forwards, that means we perceive the image as pleasant. Movements are measured with a polygraph which can detect small changes in body tension.

Results from this second study corroborate those of the first: the tobacco-warning images proposed by Brussels do not make an impact strong enough to provoke an avoidance response that would make people distance themselves from the stimulus, in this case, the cigarette pack. "Most of the photos are perceived as unpleasant but they don't make a strong enough impact on the subject," says Dr Muoz.

What's more, not only are some of the images not perceived as negative"people actually see them as positive. So, they could have the opposite effect by motivating people to approach the stimulus, that is, tobacco." This is what happens with one photograph showing the folded hands of an elderly woman, or another with an ultrasound scan image of a foetus.

Less explicit photos

Dr Muoz says that as the problem affects several EU countries one possible solution "would be to use less explicit photos on cigarette packsphotos that might have nothing to do with smokingand that are related to the feelings we want to arouse in people". In this way, if we want to transmit a sense of asphyxia "we can illustrate the idea with a person with a bag over their head, and if we want to make people feel disgust, we can include a photo of insects, say".

In view of the results of the two studies, the University of Granada researchers propose that "the tobacco-warning images proposed by the European Commission should be reviewed because they do not achieve the desired level of impact in the population. Furthermore, their use was approved in 2003. As they have been in use since then without being changed, people have become accustomed to them, which this contributes to their failure to achieve the desired level of impact," he concludes.


Contact: Miguel Ángel Muñoz
University of Granada

Related medicine news :

1. Tanning - FDA Wants Tanning Salons to Post Cancer Warning Signs
2. New FDA Proposed Tanning Bed Regulations Push For Improved Warnings During National Skin Cancer Awareness Month
3. Robotic Surgery Update: Intuitive Surgical Issues Urgent Medical Device Warning Notification
4. DrugRisks Update: Warning Added to Pradaxa For Blood Condition
5. FDA Proposes Tougher Warnings for Tanning Beds
6. DrugRisk Adds New Pancreatic Cancer Warning for Diabetes Drug Januvia
7. Warning system predicts outbreaks of dengue fever
8. Mayo Clinic creates institution-wide electronic prolonged QT interval warning system
9. Publishes Article Warning of Dangers of Talc
10. Cartilage Gives Early Warning of Arthritis, Study Finds
11. Doctor Mike Hamilton of Inception Chiropractic Websites Issues a Warning to Chiropractors about Recent Chiropractic Search Engine Optimization Penalties
Post Your Comments:
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... October 13, 2015 , ... Dr. Poneh Ghasri, dentist in West Hollywood ... 2015. The research, which was conducted at the Dental Institute at King's College London ... between stress during pregnancy and future dental health in the child. For years, researchers ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... October 13, 2015 , ... Leading ... Singal's newly launched "Publish Academy" training course . Singal's new program, in ... enrollment today, and marketers around the Internet are weighing in with reviews. , ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... October 13, 2015 , ... Scientists in Seattle and Vancouver compared the diagnostic ... or without mesothelioma. Surviving Mesothelioma has just posted an article on the new research. ... in Seattle and the University of British Columbia found that certain genetic alterations were ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... October 13, 2015 , ... California Southern ... Nursing. Dr. McLeod—who earned her Doctor of Nursing Practice from the renowned Johns ... spanned four decades. , Dr. McLeod’s long and successful nursing practice included a ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... October 13, 2015 , ... Breathing ... people do not breathe correctly. According to T’ai Chi (also spelled “Taiji”) and ... to breathe correctly, in concert with the 7,000 year old tradition they teach, ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/13/2015)... , Oct. 13, 2015  A minimally-invasive treatment just ... the United States.  After more than 10 years of ... 9 approved the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ... cells while protecting surrounding tissue and minimizing chances for ... George Suarez , a pioneering Miami ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... , Oct. 13, 2015  ContraVir Pharmaceuticals, ... "Company"), a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development ... the closing of its previously announced underwritten public ... and warrants to purchase up to 3,000,000 shares ... combined price to the public of $3.00. The ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... -- Measurement in accountable care programs is essential for ... gaps in measurement can result in missed opportunities ... new, peer-reviewed study published in The ... measurement gaps for high-priority conditions and identifies ways ... --> "These gaps in measures present ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: