Navigation Links
Vaccine for Childhood Diarrhea Helps Kids, Saves Dollars
Date:9/22/2011

By Serena Gordon
HealthDay Reporter

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Since the 2006 introduction of routine inoculation against rotavirus -- a leading cause of diarrhea in infants and young children -- almost 65,000 fewer American children have been hospitalized and about $278 million in healthcare costs have been saved, according to new research.

The vaccine targets rotavirus, a common and easily transmitted pathogen. The new study, from a team at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), found that there were 89 percent fewer rotavirus-specific hospitalizations in children who had gotten the vaccine compared to unvaccinated children.

"Diarrhea causes by rotavirus is one of the most common illnesses in children. It's usually self-limited and treated at home, but before the vaccine was introduced, the virus was responsible for about 200,000 emergency room visits and 400,000 physician office visits a year," noted the study's senior author, Dr. Umesh Parashar, a medical epidemiologist and team leader of the viral gastroenteritis team at the CDC in Atlanta.

Before routine rotavirus inoculations in 2006, the virus was associated with 20 to 60 deaths a year in children under 5 in the United States -- although that figure was much higher in developing countries. "In the U.S., with good access to healthcare, we can prevent the worse outcomes from diarrheal illness. Globally, there are about a half a million deaths caused by this pathogen," Parashar added.

Results of the study are published in the Sept. 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

In 1998, the first rotavirus vaccine became available. However, it was quickly withdrawn from the market when otherwise healthy babies began to develop a condition known as intussusception. This condition causes the bowel to fold into itself, much like a telescope, triggering an often life-threatening bowel obstruction. The vaccine was withdrawn from the market in 1999, when the CDC linked these cases with the administration of the vaccine. The CDC estimated that for every 10,000 doses of vaccine, about one to two cases of intussusceptions occurred.

However, rotavirus itself is a risk factor for developing intussusception, according to information from the CDC, and to infectious disease specialist, Dr. Marian Michaels, from Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Penn.

Michaels said that before the current, safer versions of the rotavirus vaccine came to market, studies including tens of thousands of children were done. "This was really something people took very seriously. They wanted to make sure that we first cause no harm," she said.

So, since 2006, two new versions of rotavirus vaccine have been introduced. The vaccine is given orally at two, four and six months of age, according to background information in the study. Parashar said the current study didn't look at rates of intussusception, but research in Latin America and Australia has found that the incidence there was approximately one or two per 100,000 babies vaccinated.

The study estimated that if this finding applied to the United States and all infants in the country were vaccinated, there would be an additional 50 cases of intussusception and additional health care costs of about $500,000, in contrast to the tens of thousands of hospitalizations prevented and millions of dollars saved by vaccinating against rotavirus.

"The most important thing is that this vaccine decreases the risk of a child getting rotavirus, and possibly needing hospitalization because of dehydration. The benefits of this vaccine outweigh the risks," said Michaels.

Parashar and his colleagues compared 2007-2009 data from U.S. insurance databases against similar data from 2001 through 2006, to assess trends in rotavirus hospitalizations, ER visits and physician-office visits over time.

By the end of 2008, 73 percent of children had gotten at least one dose of rotavirus vaccine, 64 percent of children between one and two years of age had at least the initial dose of the vaccine, and 8 percent of children between two and four years old had at least one dose. Parashar said the vaccine needs to be given before children are eight months old.

The researchers found that hospitalization rates for diarrhea went down as much as 33 percent after introduction of the vaccine. For rotavirus-specific hospitalizations, the rate went down as much as 75 percent, according to the study.

When the researchers compared vaccinated and unvaccinated children, they found the rate of rotavirus-specific hospitalizations were 89 percent less for vaccinated children. The number of ER visits were about 48 percent lower for vaccinated children, and physician office visits were around 12 percent lower for children who received the vaccine.

"Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrheal illness. The vaccine can prevent and reduce the disease burden substantially," said Parashar.

"This vaccine decreases the risk of a child getting rotavirus and needing hospitalization. I think this is extraordinarily exciting, and we've already seen the reduction in the ER," said Michaels.

More information

Learn more about the rotavirus vaccine from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

SOURCES: Umesh Parashar, M.B., B.S., M.P.H., medical epidemiologist and team leader, viral gastroenteritis team, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.; Marian Michaels, M.D., pediatric infectious disease specialist, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Penn.; Sept. 22, 2011 New England Journal of Medicine


'/>"/>
Copyright©2010 ScoutNews,LLC.
All rights reserved  

Related medicine news :

1. Health Experts Say HPV Vaccine Is Safe
2. Pregnant Women Reminded to Get Flu Vaccine
3. Breakthrough opens new avenues for hep C vaccine
4. Whole-parasite malaria vaccine shows promise in University of Maryland School of Medicine clinical trial
5. Fewer than 3 doses of cervical cancer vaccine effective
6. Two Doses of HPV Vaccine May Work as Well as Three
7. New TB vaccine approach shows promise in mice
8. More U.S. Tweens Getting Recommended Vaccines
9. GEN reports on advances in DNA vaccine delivery and production
10. Single vaccines to protect against both rabies and Ebola
11. U.S.-Mandated Report Finds Vaccines Safe for Kids
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Vaccine for Childhood Diarrhea Helps Kids, Saves Dollars
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... June 26, 2016 , ... PawPaws brand pet ... product that was developed to enhance the health of felines. The formula is all-natural ... two main herbs in the PawPaws Cat Kidney Support Supplement Soft Chews ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... ... and applications at AcademyHealth’s Annual Research Meeting June 26-28, 2016, at the Hynes ... important health care topics including advance care planning, healthcare costs and patient and ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... , ... June 25, 2016 , ... "With 30 hand-drawn ... specific project," said Christina Austin - CEO of Pixel Film Studios. , ProHand ... all within Final Cut Pro X . Simply select a ProHand generator and ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... ... recover from injury. Recently, he has implemented orthobiologic procedures as a method for ... is one of the first doctors to perform the treatment. Orthobiologics are substances ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... A recent article published June 14 ... The article goes on to state that individuals are now more comfortable seeking to ... operations such as calf and cheek reduction. The Los Angeles area medical group, Beverly ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... CLEMENTE, Calif. , June 24, 2016  American Respiratory Labs ... company, is now able to perform sophisticated lung assessments in patients, ... Technologies , Inc. Patients are no longer limited ... ndd,s EasyOne PRO ® , ARL patients like Jeanne R. of ... done in the comfort of her own home. ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... NAMUR , Belgium , ...  (NYSE MKT: VNRX), today announced the appointment of ... Board of Directors as a Non-Executive Director, effective ... the Company,s Audit, Compensation and Nominations and Governance ... Board, Dr. Futcher will provide independent expertise and ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Any dentist who has made an implant supported ... Many of them do not even offer this as a ... laboratory costs involved. And those who ARE able to offer ... high cost that the majority of today,s patients would not ... Zadeh , founder of Dental Evolutions Inc. and inventor of ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: