Navigation Links
Vaccine for Childhood Diarrhea Helps Kids, Saves Dollars
Date:9/22/2011

By Serena Gordon
HealthDay Reporter

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Since the 2006 introduction of routine inoculation against rotavirus -- a leading cause of diarrhea in infants and young children -- almost 65,000 fewer American children have been hospitalized and about $278 million in healthcare costs have been saved, according to new research.

The vaccine targets rotavirus, a common and easily transmitted pathogen. The new study, from a team at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), found that there were 89 percent fewer rotavirus-specific hospitalizations in children who had gotten the vaccine compared to unvaccinated children.

"Diarrhea causes by rotavirus is one of the most common illnesses in children. It's usually self-limited and treated at home, but before the vaccine was introduced, the virus was responsible for about 200,000 emergency room visits and 400,000 physician office visits a year," noted the study's senior author, Dr. Umesh Parashar, a medical epidemiologist and team leader of the viral gastroenteritis team at the CDC in Atlanta.

Before routine rotavirus inoculations in 2006, the virus was associated with 20 to 60 deaths a year in children under 5 in the United States -- although that figure was much higher in developing countries. "In the U.S., with good access to healthcare, we can prevent the worse outcomes from diarrheal illness. Globally, there are about a half a million deaths caused by this pathogen," Parashar added.

Results of the study are published in the Sept. 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

In 1998, the first rotavirus vaccine became available. However, it was quickly withdrawn from the market when otherwise healthy babies began to develop a condition known as intussusception. This condition causes the bowel to fold into itself, much like a telescope, triggering an often life-threatening bowel obstruction. The vaccine was withdrawn from the market in 1999, when the CDC linked these cases with the administration of the vaccine. The CDC estimated that for every 10,000 doses of vaccine, about one to two cases of intussusceptions occurred.

However, rotavirus itself is a risk factor for developing intussusception, according to information from the CDC, and to infectious disease specialist, Dr. Marian Michaels, from Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Penn.

Michaels said that before the current, safer versions of the rotavirus vaccine came to market, studies including tens of thousands of children were done. "This was really something people took very seriously. They wanted to make sure that we first cause no harm," she said.

So, since 2006, two new versions of rotavirus vaccine have been introduced. The vaccine is given orally at two, four and six months of age, according to background information in the study. Parashar said the current study didn't look at rates of intussusception, but research in Latin America and Australia has found that the incidence there was approximately one or two per 100,000 babies vaccinated.

The study estimated that if this finding applied to the United States and all infants in the country were vaccinated, there would be an additional 50 cases of intussusception and additional health care costs of about $500,000, in contrast to the tens of thousands of hospitalizations prevented and millions of dollars saved by vaccinating against rotavirus.

"The most important thing is that this vaccine decreases the risk of a child getting rotavirus, and possibly needing hospitalization because of dehydration. The benefits of this vaccine outweigh the risks," said Michaels.

Parashar and his colleagues compared 2007-2009 data from U.S. insurance databases against similar data from 2001 through 2006, to assess trends in rotavirus hospitalizations, ER visits and physician-office visits over time.

By the end of 2008, 73 percent of children had gotten at least one dose of rotavirus vaccine, 64 percent of children between one and two years of age had at least the initial dose of the vaccine, and 8 percent of children between two and four years old had at least one dose. Parashar said the vaccine needs to be given before children are eight months old.

The researchers found that hospitalization rates for diarrhea went down as much as 33 percent after introduction of the vaccine. For rotavirus-specific hospitalizations, the rate went down as much as 75 percent, according to the study.

When the researchers compared vaccinated and unvaccinated children, they found the rate of rotavirus-specific hospitalizations were 89 percent less for vaccinated children. The number of ER visits were about 48 percent lower for vaccinated children, and physician office visits were around 12 percent lower for children who received the vaccine.

"Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrheal illness. The vaccine can prevent and reduce the disease burden substantially," said Parashar.

"This vaccine decreases the risk of a child getting rotavirus and needing hospitalization. I think this is extraordinarily exciting, and we've already seen the reduction in the ER," said Michaels.

More information

Learn more about the rotavirus vaccine from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

SOURCES: Umesh Parashar, M.B., B.S., M.P.H., medical epidemiologist and team leader, viral gastroenteritis team, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.; Marian Michaels, M.D., pediatric infectious disease specialist, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Penn.; Sept. 22, 2011 New England Journal of Medicine


'/>"/>
Copyright©2010 ScoutNews,LLC.
All rights reserved  

Related medicine news :

1. Health Experts Say HPV Vaccine Is Safe
2. Pregnant Women Reminded to Get Flu Vaccine
3. Breakthrough opens new avenues for hep C vaccine
4. Whole-parasite malaria vaccine shows promise in University of Maryland School of Medicine clinical trial
5. Fewer than 3 doses of cervical cancer vaccine effective
6. Two Doses of HPV Vaccine May Work as Well as Three
7. New TB vaccine approach shows promise in mice
8. More U.S. Tweens Getting Recommended Vaccines
9. GEN reports on advances in DNA vaccine delivery and production
10. Single vaccines to protect against both rabies and Ebola
11. U.S.-Mandated Report Finds Vaccines Safe for Kids
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Vaccine for Childhood Diarrhea Helps Kids, Saves Dollars
(Date:6/27/2016)... ... June 27, 2016 , ... TherapySites, the leading ... with Tennessee Counseling Association. This new relationship allows TherapySites to continue ... Association, adding exclusive benefits and promotional offers. , "TCA is extremely excited about ...
(Date:6/27/2016)... ... June 27, 2016 , ... TopConsumerReviews.com recently awarded their highest five-star ... , Millions of individuals in the United States and Canada wear eyeglasses. Once considered ... both correct vision and make a fashion statement. Even celebrities use glasses as a ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... June 26, 2016 , ... Pixel Film Studios Released ... , "Film editors can give their videos a whole new perspective by using the ... CEO of Pixel Film Studios. , ProSlice Levels contains over 30 Different presets ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... Michigan (PRWEB) , ... June 26, 2016 , ... ... to fertility once they have been diagnosed with endometriosis. These women need a ... they also require a comprehensive approach that can help for preservation of fertility ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... ... temporary closing of Bruton Memorial Library on June 21 due to a possible lice infestation, ... aspect of head lice: the parasite’s ability to live away from a human host, and ... necessary one in the event that lice have simply gotten out of control. , As ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... According to a new market ... Needles, Safety Pen Needles), Needle Length (4mm, 5mm, 6mm, ... of Purchase (Retail, Non-Retail) - Trends & Global Forecasts ... market for the forecast period of 2016 to 2021. ... by 2021 from USD 1.65 Billion in 2016, growing ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 Research and ... Global Market - Forecast to 2022" report to their ... treatment method for the patients with kidney failure, it replaces ... fluid from the patient,s blood and thus the treatment helps ... and chloride in balance. Increasing number of ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... -- Research and Markets has announced the addition ... - Forecast to 2022" report to their offering. ... to date financial data derived from varied research sources to ... potential impact on the market during the next five years, ... of sub markets, regional and country level analysis. The report ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: