Navigation Links
Vaccine first to show improved survival rates for metastatic melanoma
Date:6/3/2011

(CHICAGO) For patients with advanced melanoma, which is the most lethal type of skin cancer, the results of a large clinical trial show that a vaccine combined with the immune-boosting drug Interleukin-2 can improve response rate and progression-free survival.

The findings of the study were published in the June 2 issue of New England Journal of Medicine. This marks the first vaccine study in the disease and one of the first in all cancers to show clinical benefit in a randomized Phase III clinical trial.

"This is the first time that a vaccine has shown benefit in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. The trial is an early example of success with a cancer vaccine," said Dr. Howard Kaufman, director for the Rush University Cancer Center and study co-investigator.

"If we can use the body's own defense system to attack tumor cells, we provide a mechanism for ridding the body of cancer without destroying healthy tissue," said Kaufman, who is also an associate dean of Rush Medical College and a professor in the departments of general surgery, internal medicine and immunology and microbiology at Rush University.

Therapeutic cancer vaccines, unlike typical vaccines that prevent infections, are meant to jump-start the immune system to help it battle existing tumors.

Rush was one of 21 centers in the U.S. participating in the trial. Researchers randomly assigned 185 patients with metastatic melanoma to either a combination of the peptide vaccine, which is a small portion of protein that is present on the surface of the melanoma cancer cells, and Interleukin-2, a drug that activates the immune system, or a high dose of Interleukin-2 alone.

The peptide vaccine, known as gp100:209-217 (200M), works by stimulating the patient's T-cells, which is known for controlling immune responses. The injection primes the immune system to recognize the protein and activates the body's cytotoxic T-cells to recognize the antigens on the surface of the cancerous tumor. The T-cells then secrete enzymes to seek out and destroy the tumor cell's membrane.

The immune-boosting drug, Interleukin-2, enhances the vaccine's effectiveness by stimulating the production of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that circulates throughout the body. More circulating lymphocytes means there are more cells available to do the job the vaccine has educated them to do.

Ninety-four patients in the Interleukin-2 arm of the study were enrolled and 93 were treated and evaluated for response. In the Interleukin-2 and peptide vaccine combination arm of the study, 91 were enrolled, 86 were treated and 85 were evaluated for response.

About 16 percent of study participants given the vaccine and Interleukin-2 combination saw tumors shrink by 50 percent or more, compared to 6 percent given Interleukin-2 alone.

Those in the vaccine and drug combination group also had slightly longer progression-free survival rates of 2.2 months compared to 1.6 months, which means those participants had more time in which the tumor did not grow.

Patients given the combination also lived an average of nearly seven months longer than those only give Interleukin-2 -- 17.8 months longer compared to 11.1 months.

In order for this vaccine to work, patients had to have a particular tissue type, called HLA-A2, which is present in about half of whites.

According to the American Cancer Society, melanoma has one of the fastest growing incident rates of all cancers. The five-year survival rate for melanoma patients is less than 10 percent.

Interleukin-2 is already FDA-approved to treat metastatic melanoma and kidney cancer.

The next step is to improve the vaccine's efficacy. Researchers hope to improve upon the study's findings by combining the vaccine with other immune-stimulatory agents such as adjuvants, other cytokines and antibodies that further activate the immune cells.

"This is one of the first positive, randomized vaccine trials in cancer and the findings represent a significant step forward for treatment of advanced melanoma," said Kaufman.

The vaccine, if eventually approved by the FDA, would be relatively inexpensive because it is based on a protein that's present in most melanoma cancers, whereas other vaccines have had to be created for each individual patient.


'/>"/>

Contact: Deb Song
deb_song@rush.edu
312-942-0588
Rush University Medical Center
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Study finds vaccine extends recurrent GBM survival rates by 2 to 3 times
2. ASCO: Experimental vaccine made from frozen immune cells shows promise for prostate cancer patients
3. Therapeutic melanoma vaccine improves response rate, progression-free survival
4. Melanoma Vaccine Shows Promise in Trial
5. Vaccine increases disease-free survival for follicular lymphoma patients
6. Black Americans With Lupus Have Better Response to Flu Vaccine
7. African-Americans with SLE more responsive to flu vaccine than patients of European descent
8. Toward a vaccine for methamphetamine abuse
9. Model developed to improve combination vaccine accessibility worldwide
10. Rino Rappuoli honored for his work in vaccines and vaccinology
11. Insight into HIV immunity may lead to vaccine
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:2/12/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... February 12, 2016 , ... ... Lean Leadership Series at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital on April 5-7. The ... new behaviors and create new habits. The workshops cover a broad range of ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... NC (PRWEB) , ... February 12, 2016 , ... AssureVest ... surrounding areas, is initiating a charity drive that will raise funds earmarked to purchase ... John C. Tayloe Elementary School. , “My school is in a low-income area and ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... , ... February 12, 2016 , ... ... the Pittsburgh metro area, celebrates the beginning of the latest charity campaign in ... social skills through art. Donations to this worthy cause are currently being accepted ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... February 12, 2016 , ... J Thomas & Associates ... it’s commitment to act as Agents of Change in the community, announces a ... homeless families to fulfill immediate needs and help them move into permanent housing. ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... February 12, 2016 , ... Homeowners ... exterior design possibilities. CertainTeed, North America’s leading brand of building products, has improved ... offerings showcased in the mobile version of the ColorView® Exterior Style and Color ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/12/2016)... -- Memorial Hermann Health System has teamed up with Houston ... a one-of-a-kind experience to pediatric patients at Children,s ... 360-degree video and Google Cardboard, Howard was able to ... the patients and their families an unexpected, and energetically ... video . Memorial Hermann IRONMAN Sports ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... 12, 2016  Aralez Pharmaceuticals Inc. (Nasdaq: ARLZ ... Company will ring the Nasdaq Closing Bell at the ... at 4:00 p.m. ET on Tuesday, February ... Adrian Adams , will perform the honorary ... 4:00 p.m. ET.  A live webcast will be available ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... 12, 2016 --> ... Chronic Inflammation Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2015 ... global clinical trials landscape along with top level ... Country (G7 & E7), Trial Status, Trial Phase, ... top companies involved and enlists all trials (Trial ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: