The Adler survey found that in hospital-based studies, participants with higher levels of Vitamin C in their blood were less likely to have DR, but in population-based studies there was no association between dietary intake of Vitamin C and DR. For Vitamin E, no studies showed an association between blood levels or dietary intake and DR risk. For magnesium, one study showed an association between low blood levels of magnesium and DR progression, but other studies were inconclusive.
Assessing Eyesight and Ethnic Group Norms in Young Children
How common are vision disorders in infants and young children, and do rates differ by ethnic group? The Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study (MEPEDS) based at the Doheny Eye Institute, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, is the first large study to consider these questions in preschool-aged children. Rohit Varma, MD, MPH, and colleagues report their findings on refractive error, the leading cause of vision problems in young children. They studied the prevalence of myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and anisometropia (a difference in refractive error between the two eyes) in more than 6,000 Hispanic and African American children (about 3,000 per ethnicity) aged 6 to 72 months.
Overall, about 90 percent of the children were in the normal range (measured in eye exams as less than 1 diopter of myopia and greater than 4 diopters of hyperopia). African-American children were more likely to be myopic (6.6 percent) than Hispanic children (3.7 percent), and rates declined with age in both groups. MEPEDS results suggest that low-level myopia that improves with age may be normal, especially in African American infants: 14 percent were myopic at 6 to 11 months, but only 4 percent at 48 months and older. Other studies show that myopia increases again in both groups in school-aged children. Hyperopia was more prevalent in Hispanic than in African-A
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American Academy of Ophthalmology