Navigation Links
Unstable chromosome regions are the origin of yeast's brewing capacity
Date:5/14/2010

The ability of yeast cells to convert sugar to alcohol, the key process in the production of beer and wine, can be attributed to a remarkable evolutionary process. The genes that allow yeast to digest sugars in fruits and grains have been duplicated several times over the course of time allowing for optimal conversion of different types of sugars (such as sucrose and maltose) into alcohol. The duplications arose because the genes for sugar processing are situated close to the unstable margin of the chromosome. The phenomenon appears not to be limited to alcohol production in yeast, but forms an important principle in the evolution of living organisms. The results are presented in a study by Kevin Verstrepen from K.U.Leuven and VIB, a life sciences institute in Flanders, Belgium, Andrew Murray from Harvard University, and Chris Brown, a joint student of Verstrepen and Murray.. The prominent journal Current Biology unveils the study.

Duplication of existing genes is an important evolutionary process

Living beings evolve generation after generation because their genetic material changes gradually. It remains a mystery how life, in a relatively short time, develops completely new properties. It is unlikely that they just appear out of nothing. Recent research, amongst others by VIB-scientists, showed that the duplication of existing genes can play a crucial role. One copy can retain the original function of the gene while the new copy may develop a new function. This can sometimes be very different from the original gene.

Living on the edge increases your chances of being duplicated

In the new study, Chris Brown, a PhD student in Verstrepens lab, shows that some genes that are closely located in the ends of the chromosomes, are duplicated more often. The ends of chromosomes, called subtelomeres, seem to function as evolutionary laboratories of our cells. New genes are continuously developed and tested in these "gene nurseries".

Duplication process is of great importance for beer yeast

It appears that duplication at the subtelomeres already occurred in the ancestor of our industrial beer and wine yeasts- Modern strains of beer yeast contain five to ten copies of a prehistoric gene that allows for some sugars to be digested. Each of these modern copies ensures that yeast can digest a particular sugar, and this is much faster than the prehistoric yeast. The massive duplications occurred probably around the Cretaceous era (66 to 145 million years ago). It was no coincidence that this involved the same period in which sweet fruits and grains developed. The duplication of the genes and the further evolution thereof, allowed yeast cells to digest the different sugars in the fruits. In this way, the subtelomeric "gene copying laboratory" ensured that yeasts were able to conquer a new niche. Interestingly, it seems likely that similar subtelomeric gene duplication also stimulates evolution and adaptation in higher organisms, including humans.


'/>"/>

Contact: Joris Gansemans
joris.gansemans@vib.be
32-472-594-067
VIB (the Flanders Institute for Biotechnology)
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Womens Chromosomes May Affect Blood Pressure
2. Infectious Virus Hides In Human Chromosomes During Latency And Can Be Passed From Parents To Their Children
3. Males Y Chromosome Not in Decline
4. NIH study confirms location of stem cells near cartilage-rich regions in bones
5. Sisters of Bon Secours Plays Active Role in Bringing Healthcare to Regions of Peru
6. Scientists map out regulatory regions of genome, hot spots for diabetes genes
7. Alzheimers memory problems originate with protein clumps floating in the brain, not amyloid plaques
8. Breast Cancers Return in Original Tumor Site a Bad Sign
9. Top Scientists Explore the Origin of Life in Annual Lasker Lecture at Scripps Research Institute Florida Campus
10. Australia Souvenir Gift Shop Donates 10% Of Profits To Help Aboriginal Children
11. New Exhibition Hall Devoted to Human Origins Opens at National Museum of Natural History
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/6/2016)... ... May 06, 2016 , ... Featured cast and ... unique keynote address at the 2016 Learning Summit , June 12-15, in ... college students. Their stories—of complicated family issues, financial difficulties, and other personal obstacles—are ...
(Date:5/6/2016)... ... May 06, 2016 , ... ... reduce fat areas around the body, is the most popular among body sculpting ... released make perfect sense to cosmetic surgeon Dr. Richard Buckley, medical director of ...
(Date:5/6/2016)... ... May 06, 2016 , ... Canadian author Mark Black is a speaker, author, and ... Heart" around the world … with the help of his publisher Strategic Book Group and ... lay in a hospital bed waiting for a miracle: He needed a heart and double-lung ...
(Date:5/6/2016)... ... May 06, 2016 , ... Few ... which made headlines mostly for its cost despite its potential to wipe out ... surrounding the drug—part of a class called direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)—have created fallout in ...
(Date:5/6/2016)... ... 2016 , ... RowdMap, Inc. co-founder, Joshua Rosenthal, PhD, joins ... Deputy Administrator at Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); Ali Khan, MD, ... Officer at Health Care Service Corporation (Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Illinois, ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/4/2016)... ALBANY, New York , May 4, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... published by Transparency Market Research entitled "Brain Computer Interface Market ... Forecast 2016 - 2024," the  global brain computer interface (BCI) ... bn by 2024. The market is estimated to expand ... period from 2016 to 2024. A BCI ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... -- Yissum Research Development Company of ... it had signed an exclusive world-wide licensing and research ... protein degradation and immunomodulatory drugs for cancer and immune ... representing first-in-class therapy for hematologic and solid malignancies. Financial ... The novel technology was developed by Yinon Ben-Neriah ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... , May 4, 2016 ... of the  "Global Acute Ischemic Stroke Market ... to their offering.       (Logo: ... Global Acute Ischemic Stroke Market and Competitive ... Acute Ischemic Stroke pipeline products, Acute Ischemic ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: