Navigation Links
Unlocking the secrets of DNA repair
Date:10/31/2012

Scientists from the University of Sheffield have unlocked one of the secrets to DNA repair helping doctors identify DNA base damage and a patient's susceptibility to certain types of cancer.

Groundbreaking research led by Dr David Williams from the University of Sheffield's Department of Chemistry and an international collaboration of expert researchers has discovered how some proteins recognise damaged bases within DNA which, if untreated, could lead to cancer.

Dr Williams said: "Proteins carry out all the day-to-day processes needed for survival. If the DNA bases become damaged the associated protein may not function or in some cases, too much of a certain protein can be produced which might lead to cancer.

"Everyday humans are exposed to chemicals known as alkylating agents which may be derived from environmental sources or from dietary sources such as a high intake of red or processed meat or exposure to tobacco smoke. Alkylating agents can chemically modify the bases in DNA which can, in turn, lead to non-functional proteins being produced or indeed cancer.

"Fortunately humans have a large number of different DNA repair proteins whose task it is to find and repair damaged bases in DNA. However DNA base damage, although highly problematic, is rare and often only one or two bases per million or even fewer. The task of locating a damaged base is similar to finding a needle in a haystack."

DNA contains all the information needed for life within the sequence of its four bases; adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. Specific sequences of bases in DNA known as genes instruct what proteins are made and furthermore genes may be switched on or off to control how much of each protein is made.

The pioneering research, published in the journal: Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), was conducted by scientists from the University of Sheffield, University of Manchester and the Scripps Research Institute in California and focuses on damage to the guanine base to form O6-alkylguanine, a type of damage that is particularly prevalent in colon or bowel cancer.

"In humans this is repaired by alkyltransferase proteins that simply reverse the damage of these modified bases, converting them back to guanine," said Dr Williams.

"We have uncovered an exquisite mechanism whereby a positively charged side chain of the amino acid arginine found in the Alt1 protein is used to check the electronic charge distribution across the DNA base, which is altered by alkylation damage.

"This method of recognition, we believe, may also be used by many other DNA repair proteins to recognise damaged bases within DNA. A further exciting discovery we have made is to show that the alkyltransferase-like protein Alt1 can detect all known types of O-alkylguanine modification.

"Consequently, Alt1 has potential for use in identifying and quantifying levels of certain O6- alkylguanines in human tissue biopsies. This would be informative to clinicians about individual susceptibility to certain cancers, particularly colorectal."


'/>"/>

Contact: Amy Pullan
a.l.pullan@sheffield.ac.uk
01-142-229-859
University of Sheffield
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Dotcomsecrets is Offering New Opportunities to People Who Want to Become Expert in Localized Internet Marketing
2. DotComSecrets Invites Professionals to Learn Great Tips On How to Make a Handsome Income By Working As Local Internet Marketing Consultants
3. 13 Free Weight Loss Secrets Program Kicks-Off
4. DotComSecrets Offers Free Webinar to Make Individuals Skilled in Earning Thousands of Dollars by Becoming DCS’s Local Consultant
5. DotComSecrets’ Russell Brunson Is Revealing Online Money Making Secrets in Free Webinars for Students
6. DotComSecrets Is Seeking Local DCS Consultants Through Free Webinars in Coming Days
7. Secrets of lung cancer drug resistance revealed at UCSF
8. Could the Naked Mole Rat Hold Secrets to Longevity?
9. UMass Amherst researchers unravel secrets of parasites replication
10. Unmasking the deadly secrets of pancreatic cancer
11. Researchers Repair Damage Caused by Heart Attacks in Mice
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:12/8/2016)... ... December 08, 2016 , ... Russ DiGilio ... the first national #QuackGivesBack campaign which supported local breast cancer organizations during National ... Quack Gives Back initiative, and we’re very pleased with the participation ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... ... December 08, 2016 , ... With the increasing demand for dental ... Your Mouth?” (WIYM) campaign to inform dentists and patients about the safety issues related ... and prosthetic market in the U.S. is projected to reach $6.4 billion in 2018 ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... ... December 08, 2016 , ... Catalent Pharma Solutions, ... biologics and consumer health products, today announced that it had joined the Pharmaceutical ... a non-profit organization to unite pharmaceutical and healthcare companies that share a vision ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... ... December 08, 2016 , ... ... Care Act. Dr. Botelho advocates for the mass media launching of story movements ... ongoing opportunities to share their unfortunate experiences; such a movement can generate the ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... ... December 08, 2016 , ... Peter Zipp Insurance, an ... around the greater Phoenix metropolitan region, is announcing a charity event to provide ... the Homeless Youth Connection is to promote community awareness of the ongoing needs ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:12/8/2016)... 8, 2016 Research and Markets has announced ... their offering. ... The global chromatography market to grow at a ... Market 2016-2020, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with ... growth prospects over the coming years. The report also includes a discussion ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... , December 8, 2016 ... "Sugar-Based Excipients Market by Product (Actual Sugars, Sugar ... (Filler & Diluent, Tonicity Agents), Formulation (Oral, Topical, ... MarketsandMarkets, the market has witnessed healthy growth during ... at a CAGR of 4.3% between 2016 and ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... , Dec. 8, 2016  Agenovir Corporation, a ... novel antiviral therapeutics, today announced that it appointed ... officer and a member of the board of ... executive with a deep background in both founding ... founder of Agenovir, co-president of Chan Zuckerberg  Biohub ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: