Navigation Links
University of Pennsylvania researchers find that the unexpected is a key to human learning
Date:3/13/2009

PHILADELPHIA The human brain's sensitivity to unexpected outcomes plays a fundamental role in the ability to adapt and learn new behaviors, according to a new study by a team of psychologists and neuroscientists from the University of Pennsylvania.

Using a computer-based card game and microelectrodes to observe neuronal activity of the brain, the Penn study, published this week in the journal Science, suggests that neurons in the human substantia nigra, or SN, play a central role in reward-based learning, modulating learning based on the discrepancy between the expected and the realized outcome.

"This is the first study to directly record neural activity underlying this learning process in humans, confirming the hypothesized role of the basal ganglia, which includes the SN, in models of reinforcement including learning, addiction and other disorders involving reward-seeking behavior," said lead author Kareem Zaghloul, postdoctoral fellow in neurosurgery at Penn's School off Medicine. "By responding to unexpected financial rewards, these cells encode information that seems to help participants maximize reward in the probabilistic learning task."

Learning, previously studied in animal models, seems to occur when dopaminergic neurons, which drive a larger basal ganglia circuit, are activated in response to unexpected rewards and depressed after the unexpected omission of reward. Put simply, a lucky win seems to be retained better than a probable loss.

Similar to an economic theory, where efficient markets respond to unexpected events and expected events have no effect, we found that the dopaminergic system of the human brain seems to be wired in a similar rational manner -- tuned to learn whenever anything unexpected happens but not when things are predictable," said Michael J. Kahana, senior author and professor of psychology at Penn's School of Arts and Sciences.

Zaghloul worked with Kahana and Gordon Baltuch,
'/>"/>

Contact: Jordan Reese
jreese@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2

Related medicine news :

1. NorthShore University HealthSystem Launches Diabetes Outreach Program for Lake County's Medically Underserved
2. Dallas To Host Intensive Norvax University Insurance Agent Sales Training and Web Marketing Conference on March 26
3. University of Maryland Business School Continues Executive Education Leadership With Maryland State Medical Society Partnership
4. Hebrew University scientist develop technique for eliminating reblockage of arteries
5. NorthShore University HealthSystem Only Hospital in the Region to Use Incisionless Procedure to Reduce Weight Regain
6. New Tel Aviv University research links diabetes to cognitive deterioration
7. The Columbia University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology is Happy to Announce That Charles S. Kleinman, M.D., Will Begin Seeing Patients at Columbia Eastside
8. University of Kansas research finds human emotions hold sway over physical health worldwide
9. Preventing a second stroke is focus of study at Rush University Medical Center
10. Sisters of Charity Health System & University Hospitals Announce New Agreement for Jointly Owned Hospitals
11. University of the Rockies Faculty and Students Travel to China to Share Western Philosophy
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:7/26/2014)... As reported by Lauren Hunter of ... 3 factors: smaller spaces, multi-generational access, and water consumption. ... 2014 lists, including this article on Freshome , ... a leading manufacturer of steam bath generators, has noticed ... smaller spaces and an effort to reduce water consumption. ...
(Date:7/26/2014)... 26, 2014 As reported in ... 23rd, new research by Palo Alto Networks shows that ... playbook, now focusing more on businesses and their digital ... become increasingly wise to their tactics over the years. ... Joe Caruso, talks about the evolution of 419 scams ...
(Date:7/26/2014)... “Healthy teeth are important, and having your teeth cleaned regularly ... Health Center of Snohomish County (CHC) in their article, “ ... integration of medical and dental care is the best way ... encourage regular cleanings and checkups not only with a family ... adults will find knowledgeable and friendly staff that ...
(Date:7/26/2014)... July 26, 2014 Multiple sclerosis ... disseminata, is an inflammatory disease in which the ... and spinal cord are damaged. This damage disrupts ... to communicate, resulting in a wide range of ... psychiatric problems. Multiple sclerosis takes several forms, with ...
(Date:7/26/2014)... (PRWEB) July 26, 2014 The U.S. Food ... list that includes a new medication guide for AndroGel to ... serious side-effect of taking the topical low testosterone medication, notes ... AbbVie Inc., the makers of the low testosterone theapy drug, ... of pain, swelling or redness as signs of a blood ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):Health News:Amerec Finds Bathroom Design Trends Change Based on Water Consumption and Other Factors 2Health News:Businesses the New Target for Nigeria’s 419 Cyber-Scammers 2Health News:Businesses the New Target for Nigeria’s 419 Cyber-Scammers 3Health News:Businesses the New Target for Nigeria’s 419 Cyber-Scammers 4Health News:Businesses the New Target for Nigeria’s 419 Cyber-Scammers 5Health News:Businesses the New Target for Nigeria’s 419 Cyber-Scammers 6Health News:Common Dental Care Questions Answered by Community Health Center of Snohomish County in Recent Article 2Health News:Multiple Sclerosis Therapeutics Clinical Trials Market Review H2 2014 Analysis Report Available at MarketOptimizer.org 2Health News:Multiple Sclerosis Therapeutics Clinical Trials Market Review H2 2014 Analysis Report Available at MarketOptimizer.org 3Health News:Multiple Sclerosis Therapeutics Clinical Trials Market Review H2 2014 Analysis Report Available at MarketOptimizer.org 4Health News:FDA Updates AndroGel Risks to Include Blood Clots In Legs and Lungs as Testosterone Treatment Lawsuits Move Forward 2Health News:FDA Updates AndroGel Risks to Include Blood Clots In Legs and Lungs as Testosterone Treatment Lawsuits Move Forward 3Health News:FDA Updates AndroGel Risks to Include Blood Clots In Legs and Lungs as Testosterone Treatment Lawsuits Move Forward 4Health News:FDA Updates AndroGel Risks to Include Blood Clots In Legs and Lungs as Testosterone Treatment Lawsuits Move Forward 5
... A residential summer weight-loss camp markedly improved obese ... Pediatrics reports. A Saint Louis University ... index (BMI), physical fitness and blood pressure. "Weight ... the social environment to be successful," said Nadim Kanafani, ...
... diabetes may be related to trend toward less sleep, ... Adding to the many reasons why people should get adequate ... cause insulin resistance, a component of type 2 diabetes. , ... measured after a night of normal sleep (about eight hours) ...
... levels increased more than 50% after timing change, researchers say ... make better use of a vitamin D supplement if you ... Researchers at the Cleveland Clinic examined 17 patients with vitamin ... period of two to three months, the patients were told ...
... May 2010 -- An international team of researchers has ... with HER2 over-expressing breast cancer do not respond to ... research, presented at the IMPAKT Breast Cancer Conference in ... clinical trial design and treatment strategies in HER2 over-expressing ...
... to 10 million women take hormone therapies, which are ... hormones lost from inactive ovaries. Progestin is a hormone ... of estrogen therapy on the uterus. In studies sponsored ... found that estrogen and progestin in hormone therapies increase ...
... ... held liable of confirmation fraud if an employee responds falsely to a confirmation request. ... requests, new guidance from the standards-setting boards supporting the use of secure electronic confirmations now ... ...
Cached Medicine News:Health News:The biggest winners: Summer campers 2Health News:One Sleepless Night Ups Insulin Resistance 2Health News:Estrogen receptor status of HER2+ breast cancer correlates with response to anti-HER therapies 2Health News:Breast cancer metastasis increases after estrogen and progestin hormone therapies, MU study finds 2Health News:Brian Fox to Speak on Audit Confirmation Fraud at the 2010 IAPP Annual Forum and Expo 2
(Date:7/25/2014)... July 25, 2014 /PRNewswire-iReach/ -- Full Service CRO ... the new Vice President of Business Development. Peter has ... in a number of different business development positions with ... positions were primarily related to business development/sales management and ... 30 years makes him a key and strategic asset ...
(Date:7/25/2014)... MARLTON, N.J. , July 25, 2014 /PRNewswire/ ... visibility, brand protection and serialization solutions, has recently ... Business" that addresses current and future needs ... solutions for the old supply chain model no ... advances in technology, including the growth of mobile ...
(Date:7/25/2014)... 25, 2014  IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. (NASDAQ: ... quarter of 2014 increased 11% versus the prior year ... for the second quarter of 2014 versus the prior ... in distributor inventory 2 . Earnings per diluted share ... 11% from the prior year period to $1.10."In the ...
Breaking Medicine Technology:Contract Research Organization WCCT Global Welcomes Peter Nieto as Vice President of Business Development 2Acsis Addresses Questions on the Modern Supply Chain 2IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 2IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 3IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 4IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 5IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 6IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 7IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 8IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 9IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 10IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 11IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 12IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 13IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 14IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 15IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 16IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 17IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 18IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 19IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 20IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 21IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 22IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 23IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 24IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 25IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 26IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 27IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 28IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 29IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 30IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 31IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 32IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 33IDEXX Laboratories Announces Second Quarter Results 34
... 2010 /PRNewswire-Asia-FirstCall/ -- Lotus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: ... fast-growing, profitable developer, manufacturer and seller of medicine and ... today that the Company will effect a two-for-one reverse ... minimum share price requirements in connection with its application ...
... 31, 2010 CVS Caremark (NYSE: CVS ... to acquire the Medicare Part D business of Universal ... billion.  Universal American is a leading Medicare Prescription Drug Plan ... acquisition will more than double the size of CVS ...
Cached Medicine Technology:Lotus Pharmaceuticals Announces Approval of Reverse Stock Split 2CVS CAREMARK to Purchase Universal American's Medicare Part D Business 2CVS CAREMARK to Purchase Universal American's Medicare Part D Business 3CVS CAREMARK to Purchase Universal American's Medicare Part D Business 4
... Mono-M Test is a qualitative enzyme ... to Paul-Bunnell heterophil, Epstein-Barr virus capsid ... used in conjunction with Mono-G Test, ... serodiagnosis of infectious (EBV) mononucleosis and ...
... The ImmunoWELL VCA IgM Test is an ELISA ... to Epstein-Barr Virus viral capsid antigen (VCA) in ... used in conjunction with other testing such as ... EBV early antigen tests and/or heterophile tests, the ...
The ImmunoWELL Borrelia (Lyme) Test is an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the qualitative and/or semiquantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi total antibodies (IgG, IgM, and IgA) in serum and is u...
... ImmunoDOT is dot-blot assay system combining ... microwell, a purified antigen set at a ... membrane. Reactivity is detected using the same ... assays., ,ENA/DNA combines antigens detected in Auto ...
Medicine Products: