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UH biochemist works to revolutionize ovarian cancer treatment
Date:12/21/2010

ientists discovered that microRNAs might actually be the hidden regulators that control the 30,000 genes in the human body by silencing gene expression. Gunaratne has been at the vanguard of this development. With its 2008 acquisition of a $1 million genome sequencer device the Illumina Genome Analyzer UH instantly became a major player in this cutting-edge research. This state-of-the-art machine can rapidly deconstruct and analyze millions of pages worth of genetic data and allowed Gunaratne's lab to sequence hundreds of normal and diseased tissue samples.

Gunaratne set her sights on a variety of cancers, including ovarian tumors, pediatric neuroblastoma and multiple myeloma. Using the sequencer in collaboration with Baylor, Texas Children's Cancer Center and the Lurie Cancer Center at Northwestern University, her team created a unique database documenting genome-wide patters of microRNA and gene expression across an array of human tissues and cancers. The ultimate goal is to connect specific microRNAs with the genes they regulate, individualized to attack specific genomes.

From this database, Gunaratne's team was able to pinpoint a handful of microRNAs in the human body that can significantly or completely suppress the growth of cancer cells. One in particular, miR-31, discovered by Baylor collaborators and Gunaratne, shows promise as a potent tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer, glioblastoma, osteosarcoma and prostate cancer.

They discovered that miR-31 can specifically target and kill cancer cells that are deficient in p53, a crucial gene that guards the integrity of the genome and prevents cancer. More than half of all cancers and 90 percent of papillary serous tumors the most common type of malignant ovarian cancer are p53-deficient.

In cell cultures miR-31 suppressed and killed tumor cells deficient in p53, while sparing cells with a normal p53 gene. Since all non-cancerous cells in the body would be resistant to miR
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Contact: Lisa Merkl
lkmerkl@uh.edu
713-743-8192
University of Houston
Source:Eurekalert  

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