Also in rare cases, the MMR vaccine can cause brain inflammation in people with severe immune system deficiencies, she added.
In a very few children, the varicella (chickenpox) vaccine can cause brain swelling, pneumonia, hepatitis, meningitis or shingles. Most of these problems affect people with immune system deficiencies that increase susceptibility to the live viruses used in MMR and varicella vaccines, the report noted.
In addition, the MMR, varicella, influenza, hepatitis B, meningococcal and tetanus vaccines can cause a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis shortly after injection. In general, vaccine injections can result in fainting and inflammation of the shoulder, the committee said.
The evidence for other problems linked to vaccines is less clear, the report found.
The MMR vaccine might cause short-term joint pain in some women and children. Some people can have an allergic reaction after receiving the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer, and some flu vaccines have resulted in a mild, temporary breathing problems.
Clayton noted that the "MMR vaccine and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) do not cause type 1 diabetes, and the MMR vaccine does not cause autism."
In addition, the flu shot does not cause Bell's palsy or worsen asthma, Clayton said.
But not everyone is convinced by the IOM's findings. Barbara Loe Fisher, co-founder and president of the National Vaccine Information Center, which has argued for more caution on the immunization of children, said the research is inadequate to determine whether vaccines are safe or not.
"You don't have enough studies that are methodologically sound," she said. "Whether the big increases in asthma and ADHD and other brain and immune system disorders among children is wholly or partly due to the fact that they are getting three times as many
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