Navigation Links
Toddlers Affected Most by Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Home
Date:3/14/2008

American Heart Association meeting report

COLORADO SPRINGS, Colo., March 14 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Secondhand smoke in the home appears to induce markers for heart disease as early as the toddler years, researchers reported at the American Heart Association's 48th Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention.

It has long been known that many forms of cardiovascular disease in adults are initiated and progress silently during childhood. Now researchers have found a young child's response to smoke may not just affect the respiratory system, but the cardiovascular system as well.

"This is the first study that looks at the response of a young child's cardiovascular system to secondhand smoke," said Judith Groner, M.D., lead author of the study, pediatrician and ambulatory care physician at Nationwide Children's Hospital and Research Institute in Columbus, Ohio.

The study included 128 children, 2 to 5 years old and adolescents 9 to 14. Researchers found that children ages 2 to 5 absorbed six times more nicotine than children 9 to 14 from the same levels of parental smoking. That exposure resulted in a dramatic increase of markers of inflammation and vascular injury signaling damage to the endothelium, the inner lining of the vessel walls.

Hair samples of children ages 2 to 5 showed this age group had average nicotine levels of 12.68 nanograms per milligram of hair compared to the 9 to 14 year age group, which had 2.57 nanograms per milligram of hair. Toddlers had significantly higher levels of the inflammatory marker soluble intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM). "Toddlers in the homes of smokers not only had higher levels of nicotine, but also had higher levels of markers for cardiovascular disease in the blood," said John Bauer, Ph.D., senior author of the study and director of the Center for Cardiovascular Medicine at Nationwide Children's Hospital and Research Institute in Columbus, Ohio. "The dose of smoke is greater in toddlers than adolescents who are able to move in and out of the home. Toddlers are like a fish in a fishbowl. They are exposed at a higher dose. And it appears that toddlers also are more susceptible to the cardiovascular effects of smoke."

Most of the children in the study had varying levels of secondhand smoke exposure, measured by the number of adult smokers a child was exposed to in 24 hours. Researchers took hair samples to determine nicotine levels in the body and drew blood to determine endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) levels by flow cytometry. Endothelial progenitor cells replenish the endothelium and serve as a biological marker for vascular function.

Researchers also measured known inflammatory markers, such as ICAM, in the blood.

"When we analyzed our data by looking at the relationships between the number of smokers in the home and the EPC levels, we found that in toddlers, there was an inverse relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and EPC prevalence," Groner said. "In other words, the more smokers the toddler was exposed to, the fewer EPC cells were circulating in his bloodstream. This relationship was not present among the adolescents."

The vascular endothelium (the inner lining of arteries and blood vessels) plays a key role in promoting cardiovascular health by maintaining the tone and circulation of the arteries. ICAM is a specific marker of endothelial cell stress, which contributes to artery clogging and atherosclerosis, raising the risk of heart disease.

"The combustion of the cigarettes appears to be causing endothelial damage which is reflected in the increase in soluble ICAM in exposed children," Groner said. "Toddlers who are in the vicinity of smokers in the home have a higher dose of tobacco chemicals. They live at home and can't escape. Young children also breathe faster, taking more smoke into their respiratory system."

Past studies found that the levels of EPC are lower in adult smokers. EPCs have not been studied previously in non-smokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke.

This study indicates that cardiovascular effects of tobacco exposure in children is very similar to that of adults in the affect on the vascular wall, Groner said.

She noted the study is a "snapshot in time" and doesn't give a long-term picture of the effects of secondhand smoke on the developing cardiovascular system of children.

"The results are intriguing, but further study is needed," she said. "We're not sure what happens to kids if they stay in a smoking environment or if they have multiple risk factors such as being overweight or having high blood pressure. Until then, parents and others should not smoke in homes with children, and should be especially attentive to this issue around toddlers."

Other authors include: Hong Huang, M.D., Ph.D.; Lisa Nicholson, Ph.D.; Danielle Frock, B.S.; Catherine Schroeder, B.S.; and Jennifer Kuck, A.C.S.M.

The Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute (FAMRI) funded the study.

Statements and conclusions of abstract authors that are presented at American Heart Association/American Stroke Association scientific meetings are solely those of the abstract authors and do not necessarily reflect association policy or position. The associations make no representation or warranty as to their accuracy or reliability.

Note: Presentation is 5 p.m. MT/7 p.m. ET, March 13, 2008.

Editors Note: The American Heart Association strongly supports the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, legislation giving the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) adequately funded and meaningful authority over the manufacture, sale, distribution, labeling and promotion of tobacco products. The association also advocates for comprehensive clean indoor workplace policies, as well as increases in tobacco excise taxes and tobacco control prevention and cessation programs.


'/>"/>
SOURCE American Heart Association
Copyright©2008 PR Newswire.
All rights reserved

Related medicine news :

1. Hylands Cough and Cold Medicines Remain a Safe and Effective Option for Toddlers and Young Children
2. Parental Control of Eating Leads to Lighter Toddlers
3. Toy Blocks Might Boost Toddlers Language Skills
4. Overweight toddlers and those not in day care at risk for iron deficiency
5. Obesity Action Coalition Calls on the State of Mississippi House of Representatives to Withdraw House Bill 282 Discriminating Against Those Affected by Obesity
6. U.S. Department of Labor Announces $1.25 Million to North Carolina to Help Trade-Affected Workers Pay for Health Insurance
7. Ovarian cancer risk not affected by alcohol and smoking, but reduced by caffeine
8. Blue Shield of California Reaching Out to Members Affected by California Storms
9. American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery and American Society of Plastic Surgeons Offer Patient Advisory for those Affected by Fig LipoDissolve Closures
10. DaVita Emergency Response Efforts Ensure Vital Treatment for More than 700 Kidney Failure Patients in Need of Life-Saving Dialysis Treatments in Areas Affected by Southern California Wildfires
11. UniCare Announces Temporary Pharmacy Guidelines for Customers Affected by the California Wildfires
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/26/2017)... ... May 26, 2017 , ... A new analysis of ... the healthiest seniors are located in the Midwest. With the average cost of healthcare ... people are concerned with both the quality and affordability of where they live. An ...
(Date:5/26/2017)... ... May 26, 2017 , ... ... copper, antimicrobial, mesh back 24/7 task chair specifically designed for clinical areas. Genie ... are thrilled to partner with Cupron® to provide customers with a game changing ...
(Date:5/26/2017)... , ... May 26, 2017 , ... After raising nearly ... Top gadget will continue to be available at a discounted crowdfunding price on ... stress wherever they are, I also wanted to bring a fidget toy to the ...
(Date:5/26/2017)... ... 26, 2017 , ... Silver Birch of Hammond, a new assisted lifestyle community, ... four acres of land at 5620 Sohl Avenue in Hammond, serves older adults who ... 125 studio and one-bedroom apartments. Each of the private apartments at Silver Birch features ...
(Date:5/26/2017)... ... May 26, 2017 , ... Dr. Alex Rabinovich, a highly-skilled oral surgeon specializing ... blog post on insurance options. If a Bay Area patient has to search for ... and money. Visiting an in-network provider for a second opinion can ensure a patient ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/4/2017)... May 4, 2017  A new tight-tolerance microextrusion ... other highly-engineered materials, is being launched by Natvar, ... been developed in recent years to service a ... surgical applications. More expensive materials such as glass ... tubing due to their ability to consistently hold ...
(Date:5/3/2017)... 3, 2017 A Catheterization Laboratory is ... healthcare facility. Commonly referred to as cath lab, ... diagnostic imaging technology to give physicians visual access ... these spaces, a team of physicians perform life-saving ... coronary intervention, congenital heart defect closure, stenotic heart ...
(Date:5/3/2017)... , May 3, 2017  Getinge, a leading ... to quality enhancement and cost efficiency within healthcare ... study of contemporary practice demonstrating that intra-aortic balloon ... for critically ill patients. The single-center, retrospective, observational ... large volume MEGA ® 50cc intra-aortic balloon ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: