Navigation Links
The first animal model for sexual transmission of HIV
Date:8/14/2013

Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a debilitating disorder in which progressive weakening of the immune system makes affected individuals more susceptible to potentially life-threatening infections and chronic diseases. Despite advances in the treatment and management of AIDS, there is no cure, and HIV infection remains a major global health problem. According to the WHO, there were an estimated 34 million infected individuals in 2011. Over the last three decades, a number of animal models have been developed to study aspects of HIV infection, pathogenesis and control. However, the currently available models do not recapitulate the physiological environment of the most common route of HIV transmission worldwide, vaginal intercourse. Now, Mary Jane Potash and colleagues from St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University Medical Center in New York, NY, have developed an approach for modelling heterosexual transmission of HIV in vivo. Their work was published recently in Disease Models & Mechanisms.

The work stems from an earlier collaboration between Potash and David J. Volsky (also from Columbia University); they established a chimeric HIV clone with a genetic modification that allows the virus to propagate in rodents instead of humans. Infection of mice with these viruses has been successfully applied to study aspects of HIV neuropathogenesis and to evaluate antiretroviral drugs and potential HIV vaccines. In their latest study, Potash and colleagues describe the efficient and reproducible transmission of chimeric HIV from infected male mice to uninfected females via mating, providing the first report of HIV transmission by coitus in an animal model. Treatment of females with antiretroviral drugs prior to mating prevented transmission of the virus, in line with observations in humans. Intriguingly, the efficiency of viral transmission declined during estrus in mice, providing evidence that the hormonal environment in the female reproductive tract can impact on host susceptibility to HIV infection. This finding has implications for HIV infection in humans, where it has been suggested that vulnerability to viral infection could vary during the menstrual cycle.

The model described here has several advantages compared with previous experimental approaches for investigating sexual transmission of HIV. For example, transmission occurs during mating, in contrast with earlier systems in which viral stocks need to be applied manually to the vaginal surface; thus, the system preserves features of the male and female reproductive tracts. This is important, as previous work has shown that host factors and cells in the seminal fluid activate cells in the female reproductive tract and enhance HIV infection, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Similarly, as indicated in this study, the local environment in the female reproductive tract can influence the rate and efficiency of HIV sexual transmission. By preserving the physiological features of coitus, the approach allows the dynamic aspects of viral sexual transmission to be investigated in vivo. Furthermore, the system can be used to investigate the efficacy of new interventive strategies aimed at preventing the most frequent route of HIV transmission.

"We developed this system to study HIV spread by mating in mice with the hope that it can be applied to promote practical approaches to prevent HIV sexual transmission to people at risk" explained Dr Potash, when asked about the goals of this research.


'/>"/>

Contact: Paraminder Dhillon
paraminder.dhillon@biologists.com
The Company of Biologists
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Precise Care is First Practice in Orange County to Offer SPG Block
2. Documentary Film Homo Intelligens - the First Generation Claims the Evolution of Humans into a New Species to be Imminent on July 28th 2014
3. Announcing the First Forward Thinking Medical Insurance Alternative By Online USA Doctors
4. 2nd Swing Golf Surpasses $50,000 in Donations to The First Tee
5. Dr. James Wire First in Minnesota to Use Natrelle 410 Gummy Bear Breast Implants
6. Homeland Grocery Stores Accepting Applications for First Ever “Get Healthy Challenge"
7. Midbrook Medical Designs First Ever Method to Help Sterile Processing Technicians Improve Efficiency in Cleaning Robotic Surgical Instrumentation
8. Vaginal Mesh Lawsuit Lawyers at Wright & Schulte LLC Report on Developments in First Federal Trial of C.R. Bard Vaginal Mesh Lawsuit
9. Women's Strike Force Announces First Fund Distribution to Virginia House of Delegates Candidates for November Race
10. Syosset, Southside Hospitals Are First on Long Island to Offer MRI-Compatible Spinal Cord Stimulator
11. Robotic Surgery Lawsuit News: Bernstein Liebhard LLP Notes Filing of First Da Vinci Lawsuit in New Jersey
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/24/2016)... Dallas, Texas (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 ... ... 12th International Conference and Scientific Sessions in Dallas that it will receive two ... Announcement of the grants came as PHA marked its 25th anniversary by recognizing ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... offering micro-osteoperforation for accelerated orthodontic treatment. Dr. Cheng has extensive experience with all ... brackets , AcceleDent, and accelerated osteogenic orthodontics. , Micro-osteoperforation is a revolutionary ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... makers of Topricin and MyPainAway Pain Relief Products, join The ‘Business for a Fair Minimum ... by 2020 and then adjusting it yearly to increase at the same rate as the ... wage floor does not erode again, and make future increases more predictable. , The company ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... EB Medicine presented its ... Emergency Medicine conference in Ponte Vedra Beach, FL. The awards honor the outstanding ... Medicine Practice and Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice. , “With this award, we ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Vegas, Nevada (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 ... ... Las Vegas client, The Grove Investment Group (TGIG), has initiated cultivation and processing ... Grove, in Las Vegas and Pahrump, Nevada. , Puradigm is the manufacturer of ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... ALEXANDRIA, Va. , June 24, 2016 ... a set of recommendations that would allow ... information (HCEI) with entities that make formulary and coverage ... determine the "value" of new medicines. The ... that does not appear on the drug label, a ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... 24, 2016 Research and Markets has ... Companion Diagnostic Tests" report to their offering. ... Diagnostics The World Market for Companion Diagnostics ... diagnostics. Market analysis in the report includes the following: ... Vitro Diagnostic Kits) by Region (N. America, EU, ROW), 2015-2020 ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Belgium , June 24, 2016 ... the appointment of Dr. Edward Futcher ... Non-Executive Director, effective June 23, 2016.Dr. Futcher was ... Nominations and Governance Committees.  As a non-executive member ... independent expertise and strategic counsel to VolitionRx in ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: