Navigation Links
The first animal model for sexual transmission of HIV

Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a debilitating disorder in which progressive weakening of the immune system makes affected individuals more susceptible to potentially life-threatening infections and chronic diseases. Despite advances in the treatment and management of AIDS, there is no cure, and HIV infection remains a major global health problem. According to the WHO, there were an estimated 34 million infected individuals in 2011. Over the last three decades, a number of animal models have been developed to study aspects of HIV infection, pathogenesis and control. However, the currently available models do not recapitulate the physiological environment of the most common route of HIV transmission worldwide, vaginal intercourse. Now, Mary Jane Potash and colleagues from St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University Medical Center in New York, NY, have developed an approach for modelling heterosexual transmission of HIV in vivo. Their work was published recently in Disease Models & Mechanisms.

The work stems from an earlier collaboration between Potash and David J. Volsky (also from Columbia University); they established a chimeric HIV clone with a genetic modification that allows the virus to propagate in rodents instead of humans. Infection of mice with these viruses has been successfully applied to study aspects of HIV neuropathogenesis and to evaluate antiretroviral drugs and potential HIV vaccines. In their latest study, Potash and colleagues describe the efficient and reproducible transmission of chimeric HIV from infected male mice to uninfected females via mating, providing the first report of HIV transmission by coitus in an animal model. Treatment of females with antiretroviral drugs prior to mating prevented transmission of the virus, in line with observations in humans. Intriguingly, the efficiency of viral transmission declined during estrus in mice, providing evidence that the hormonal environment in the female reproductive tract can impact on host susceptibility to HIV infection. This finding has implications for HIV infection in humans, where it has been suggested that vulnerability to viral infection could vary during the menstrual cycle.

The model described here has several advantages compared with previous experimental approaches for investigating sexual transmission of HIV. For example, transmission occurs during mating, in contrast with earlier systems in which viral stocks need to be applied manually to the vaginal surface; thus, the system preserves features of the male and female reproductive tracts. This is important, as previous work has shown that host factors and cells in the seminal fluid activate cells in the female reproductive tract and enhance HIV infection, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Similarly, as indicated in this study, the local environment in the female reproductive tract can influence the rate and efficiency of HIV sexual transmission. By preserving the physiological features of coitus, the approach allows the dynamic aspects of viral sexual transmission to be investigated in vivo. Furthermore, the system can be used to investigate the efficacy of new interventive strategies aimed at preventing the most frequent route of HIV transmission.

"We developed this system to study HIV spread by mating in mice with the hope that it can be applied to promote practical approaches to prevent HIV sexual transmission to people at risk" explained Dr Potash, when asked about the goals of this research.


Contact: Paraminder Dhillon
The Company of Biologists

Related medicine news :

1. Precise Care is First Practice in Orange County to Offer SPG Block
2. Documentary Film Homo Intelligens - the First Generation Claims the Evolution of Humans into a New Species to be Imminent on July 28th 2014
3. Announcing the First Forward Thinking Medical Insurance Alternative By Online USA Doctors
4. 2nd Swing Golf Surpasses $50,000 in Donations to The First Tee
5. Dr. James Wire First in Minnesota to Use Natrelle 410 Gummy Bear Breast Implants
6. Homeland Grocery Stores Accepting Applications for First Ever “Get Healthy Challenge"
7. Midbrook Medical Designs First Ever Method to Help Sterile Processing Technicians Improve Efficiency in Cleaning Robotic Surgical Instrumentation
8. Vaginal Mesh Lawsuit Lawyers at Wright & Schulte LLC Report on Developments in First Federal Trial of C.R. Bard Vaginal Mesh Lawsuit
9. Women's Strike Force Announces First Fund Distribution to Virginia House of Delegates Candidates for November Race
10. Syosset, Southside Hospitals Are First on Long Island to Offer MRI-Compatible Spinal Cord Stimulator
11. Robotic Surgery Lawsuit News: Bernstein Liebhard LLP Notes Filing of First Da Vinci Lawsuit in New Jersey
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/29/2015)... Ca (PRWEB) , ... November 29, 2015 , ... Khanna ... American Board of Ophthalmology on November 25th 2015. Peer Certification by the ... field of his specialty. Certification in Ophthalmology is first obtained after the completion of ...
(Date:11/29/2015)... ... November 29, 2015 , ... Effective immediately, every single IguanaMed scrub style will ... Friday Target is offering a “Buy One Scrub Set, Get the 2nd Scrub Set ... purchase IguanaMed at a discounted price. , IguanaMed’s mission is to outfit ...
(Date:11/28/2015)... ... ... Trying to relax on a couch can actually be uncomfortable, so an ... due to personal experience with a bad back," he said. , This easy-to-use, versatile ... as increases support. It also makes it easier to eat, do other activities and ...
(Date:11/27/2015)... ... ... According to an article published November 13th on, much ... revolved around the fact that proper dental care, both at-home and in the dental ... periodontal disease (more commonly referred to as gum disease) and diabetes. According to Dr. ...
(Date:11/27/2015)... NC (PRWEB) , ... November 27, 2015 , ... A ... effective ways to treat it. Surviving Mesothelioma has just posted the findings on ... at University Hospital Zurich analyzed the cases of 136 mesothelioma patients who were treated ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/26/2015)... Research and Markets ( ) has announced the ... Type (Dressings, Therapy Devices, Active Wound Care), Application (Surgical ... Geography - Global Forecast to 2020" report to ... --> The purpose of this report is to ... advanced wound care market. It involves deep dive analysis ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... ) has ... Market by Type (Reagents & Kits, Analyzers), ... Diagnostic Labs), Application (Research, Clinical Diagnostics), and ... report to their offering. --> ... the "Radioimmunoassay Market by Type (Reagents ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... 25, 2015  The American Academy of Pediatrics ... and the March of Dimes cheered today,s signature ... Infants Act of 2015 (S.799), which takes ... born exposed to drugs, such as opioids, and ... all three organizations have worked together leading advocacy ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: