Navigation Links
The connection between oxygen and diabetes

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have, for the first time, described the sequence of early cellular responses to a high-fat diet, one that can result in obesity-induced insulin resistance and diabetes. The findings, published in the June 5 issue of Cell, also suggest potential molecular targets for preventing or reversing the process.

"We've described the etiology of obesity-related diabetes. We've pinpointed the steps, the way the whole thing happens," said Jerrold M. Olefsky, MD, associate dean for Scientific Affairs and Distinguished Professor of Medicine at UC San Diego. "The research is in mice, but the evidence suggests that the processes are comparable in humans and these findings are important to not just understanding how diabetes begins, but how better to treat and prevent it."

More than 25 million Americans have diabetes 8.3 percent of the population with another 79 million Americans estimated to be pre-diabetic, according to the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels poorly regulated by either inadequate insulin production or because cells to not respond properly to the regulating hormone. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and a major risk factor for other life-threatening conditions, including heart disease and stroke.

Past research by Olefsky and others has shown that obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation in adipose or fat tissues and that this inflammatory state can become chronic and result in systemic insulin resistance and diabetes. In today's Cell paper, the scientists describe the earliest stages of the process, which begins even before obesity becomes manifest.

First authorYun Sok Lee, PhD, a project scientist in Olefsky's lab, and colleagues fed mice a high-fat diet. They observed that the abundant saturated fatty acids in the diet activated adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2), a mitochondrial protein in fat cell membranes that is involved in cellular energy metabolism.

Activation of ANT2 caused increased oxygen consumption, which meant less was available for the rest of the cell. The result was a relative state of hypoxia or inadequate oxygen supply, one that subsequently induced production of a protective transcription factor in fat cells called HIF-1alpha. In turn, HIF-1alpha triggered release of chemokines, proteins that signal cellular distress, launching the immune system's inflammatory response. A sustained high-fat diet ensured that the process continued unabated, leading to obesity, chronic low-grade tissue inflammation and eventually, insulin resistance in the mice.

The elucidation of this sequence also revealed two potential therapeutic targets: ANT2 and HIF-1alpha. The researchers suggest that inhibiting either could blunt, or even reverse, the damaging cellular sequence. Indeed, they found that mice genetically engineered to lack HIF-1alpha in their adipocytes were protected from high-fat diet-induced inflammation, insulin resistance and elevated glucose levels.


Contact: Scott LaFee
University of California - San Diego

Related medicine news :

1. Healthy Brain Connections Help Maintain Intellect in Old Age
2. 2 new studies show connection between sleepiness and pro-athlete careers
3. Continuing Education Provider Announces New Speech-Language Pathology Live Webinar
4. Feces fossils lend new insights into connection between Native-Americans, diabetes
5. New method to find novel connections from gene to gene, drug to drug and between scientists
6. Brains Connections May Predict Intelligence: Study
7. Researchers explore connection between popular pain relievers, bladder cancer
8. Emotional disconnection disorder threatens marriages, researcher says
9. Continuing education provider Announces Upcoming Attendance at Annual American Physical Therapy Association Combined Sections Meeting in San Diego.
10. Scientists ID New Genetic Connection for Gout
11. Announces Launch of New Website
Post Your Comments:
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... Comfort Keepers® of San ... Society and the Road To Recovery® program to drive cancer patients to and from ... adults to ensure the highest quality of life and ongoing independence. Getting to ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... People across the U.S. are sharpening their pencils and honing their writing skills ... patients and their families pay tribute to a genetic counselor by nominating him or ... Counselors (NSGC) Annual Education Conference (AEC) this September. , In April, Genome magazine ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... The Haute ... Dr. Barry M. Weintraub as a prominent plastic surgeon and the network’s newest ... world, and the most handsome men, look naturally attractive. Plastic surgery should be ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... the Frederick area economy by obtaining investment capital for emerging technology companies. ... years that have already resulted in more than a million dollars of capital ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... D.C. (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... Heroes Golf Classic Tournament held on June 20th at the Woodmont Country Club ... charity, Luke’s Wings, an organization dedicated to helping service members that have been wounded ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... , June 24, 2016  Arkis BioSciences, a ... invasive and more durable cerebrospinal fluid treatments, today ... The Series-A funding is led by Innova Memphis, ... and other private investors.  Arkis, new financing will ... and the market release of its in-licensed Endexo® ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... DUBLIN , June 23, 2016 ... the "Pharmaceutical Excipients Market by Type (Organic Chemical ... Preservative), Formulation (Oral, Topical, Coating, Parenteral) - Global Forecast ... The global pharmaceutical excipients ... 2021 at a CAGR of 6.1% in the forecast ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... LOS ANGELES , June 23, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... (NASDAQ: CAPR ), a biotechnology company ... first-in-class therapeutics, today announced that patient enrollment in ... progrEssion in Duchenne) has exceeded 50% of its ... its enrollment in the third quarter of 2016, ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: