Navigation Links
The connection between oxygen and diabetes

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have, for the first time, described the sequence of early cellular responses to a high-fat diet, one that can result in obesity-induced insulin resistance and diabetes. The findings, published in the June 5 issue of Cell, also suggest potential molecular targets for preventing or reversing the process.

"We've described the etiology of obesity-related diabetes. We've pinpointed the steps, the way the whole thing happens," said Jerrold M. Olefsky, MD, associate dean for Scientific Affairs and Distinguished Professor of Medicine at UC San Diego. "The research is in mice, but the evidence suggests that the processes are comparable in humans and these findings are important to not just understanding how diabetes begins, but how better to treat and prevent it."

More than 25 million Americans have diabetes 8.3 percent of the population with another 79 million Americans estimated to be pre-diabetic, according to the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels poorly regulated by either inadequate insulin production or because cells to not respond properly to the regulating hormone. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and a major risk factor for other life-threatening conditions, including heart disease and stroke.

Past research by Olefsky and others has shown that obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation in adipose or fat tissues and that this inflammatory state can become chronic and result in systemic insulin resistance and diabetes. In today's Cell paper, the scientists describe the earliest stages of the process, which begins even before obesity becomes manifest.

First authorYun Sok Lee, PhD, a project scientist in Olefsky's lab, and colleagues fed mice a high-fat diet. They observed that the abundant saturated fatty acids in the diet activated adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2), a mitochondrial protein in fat cell membranes that is involved in cellular energy metabolism.

Activation of ANT2 caused increased oxygen consumption, which meant less was available for the rest of the cell. The result was a relative state of hypoxia or inadequate oxygen supply, one that subsequently induced production of a protective transcription factor in fat cells called HIF-1alpha. In turn, HIF-1alpha triggered release of chemokines, proteins that signal cellular distress, launching the immune system's inflammatory response. A sustained high-fat diet ensured that the process continued unabated, leading to obesity, chronic low-grade tissue inflammation and eventually, insulin resistance in the mice.

The elucidation of this sequence also revealed two potential therapeutic targets: ANT2 and HIF-1alpha. The researchers suggest that inhibiting either could blunt, or even reverse, the damaging cellular sequence. Indeed, they found that mice genetically engineered to lack HIF-1alpha in their adipocytes were protected from high-fat diet-induced inflammation, insulin resistance and elevated glucose levels.


Contact: Scott LaFee
University of California - San Diego

Related medicine news :

1. Healthy Brain Connections Help Maintain Intellect in Old Age
2. 2 new studies show connection between sleepiness and pro-athlete careers
3. Continuing Education Provider Announces New Speech-Language Pathology Live Webinar
4. Feces fossils lend new insights into connection between Native-Americans, diabetes
5. New method to find novel connections from gene to gene, drug to drug and between scientists
6. Brains Connections May Predict Intelligence: Study
7. Researchers explore connection between popular pain relievers, bladder cancer
8. Emotional disconnection disorder threatens marriages, researcher says
9. Continuing education provider Announces Upcoming Attendance at Annual American Physical Therapy Association Combined Sections Meeting in San Diego.
10. Scientists ID New Genetic Connection for Gout
11. Announces Launch of New Website
Post Your Comments:
(Date:12/1/2015)... ... 02, 2015 , ... Ruth Pearson was struggling. She had been laid off ... assistance and quickly losing hope of recovering her former life, Pearson was desperate for ... attending a women’s retreat when she experienced a particularly impactful worship service. Without help ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... ... December 01, 2015 , ... On Tuesday ... to NASDAQ to educate the personnel on spinal decompression therapy and offer his ... a nonsurgical procedure. The benefits come from creating negative intradiscal pressure which is ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... ... December 01, 2015 , ... Henderson, a ... to receive Gigabit Internet through a partnership this year with Aeneas Internet and ... is an attractive destination for entrepreneurs who want to build a business. Whether ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... ... , ... Florida Hospital Tampa is the first health care provider in the region ... , vBloc® Therapy is a vagal blocking therapy, delivered via the Maestro® System, for the ... (BMI) of at least 40 to 45 kg, or a BMI of at least 35 ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... (PRWEB) , ... December 01, 2015 , ... Califia ... today announced that its iconic bottle has won top honors in Beverage World Magazine’s ... The Company also announced that it has been selected as a 2015 U.S.A. Taste ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:12/1/2015)... --> --> ... by Type of Drug (Monoclonal Antibodies, Interferon-Alpha, Interleukins, Vaccines, (Therapeutic ... Analysis - Global Forecast to 2020", published by MarketsandMarkets, the ... Million by 2020 from USD 40,281.6 Million in 2015, at ... Browse 37 market data T ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... 2015 Assurex Health, Inc. today announced ... healthcare providers an expanded range of options in ... from depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder ... i .   --> ... addition of two new drug classes, 17 FDA-approved ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... , Dec. 1, 2015  Six months of adjunctive metformin ... type 1 diabetes, according to new research from T1D ... it may have a beneficial effect on measures of obesity, ... issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association ... the effect of metformin on overweight and obese adolescents with ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: