Navigation Links
The connection between oxygen and diabetes
Date:6/5/2014

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have, for the first time, described the sequence of early cellular responses to a high-fat diet, one that can result in obesity-induced insulin resistance and diabetes. The findings, published in the June 5 issue of Cell, also suggest potential molecular targets for preventing or reversing the process.

"We've described the etiology of obesity-related diabetes. We've pinpointed the steps, the way the whole thing happens," said Jerrold M. Olefsky, MD, associate dean for Scientific Affairs and Distinguished Professor of Medicine at UC San Diego. "The research is in mice, but the evidence suggests that the processes are comparable in humans and these findings are important to not just understanding how diabetes begins, but how better to treat and prevent it."

More than 25 million Americans have diabetes 8.3 percent of the population with another 79 million Americans estimated to be pre-diabetic, according to the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels poorly regulated by either inadequate insulin production or because cells to not respond properly to the regulating hormone. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and a major risk factor for other life-threatening conditions, including heart disease and stroke.

Past research by Olefsky and others has shown that obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation in adipose or fat tissues and that this inflammatory state can become chronic and result in systemic insulin resistance and diabetes. In today's Cell paper, the scientists describe the earliest stages of the process, which begins even before obesity becomes manifest.

First authorYun Sok Lee, PhD, a project scientist in Olefsky's lab, and colleagues fed mice a high-fat diet. They observed that the abundant saturated fatty acids in the diet activated adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2), a mitochondrial protein in fat cell membranes that is involved in cellular energy metabolism.

Activation of ANT2 caused increased oxygen consumption, which meant less was available for the rest of the cell. The result was a relative state of hypoxia or inadequate oxygen supply, one that subsequently induced production of a protective transcription factor in fat cells called HIF-1alpha. In turn, HIF-1alpha triggered release of chemokines, proteins that signal cellular distress, launching the immune system's inflammatory response. A sustained high-fat diet ensured that the process continued unabated, leading to obesity, chronic low-grade tissue inflammation and eventually, insulin resistance in the mice.

The elucidation of this sequence also revealed two potential therapeutic targets: ANT2 and HIF-1alpha. The researchers suggest that inhibiting either could blunt, or even reverse, the damaging cellular sequence. Indeed, they found that mice genetically engineered to lack HIF-1alpha in their adipocytes were protected from high-fat diet-induced inflammation, insulin resistance and elevated glucose levels.


'/>"/>

Contact: Scott LaFee
slafee@ucsd.edu
619-543-6163
University of California - San Diego
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Healthy Brain Connections Help Maintain Intellect in Old Age
2. 2 new studies show connection between sleepiness and pro-athlete careers
3. Continuing Education Provider HomeCEUConnection.com Announces New Speech-Language Pathology Live Webinar
4. Feces fossils lend new insights into connection between Native-Americans, diabetes
5. New method to find novel connections from gene to gene, drug to drug and between scientists
6. Brains Connections May Predict Intelligence: Study
7. Researchers explore connection between popular pain relievers, bladder cancer
8. Emotional disconnection disorder threatens marriages, researcher says
9. Continuing education provider HomeCEUConnection.com Announces Upcoming Attendance at Annual American Physical Therapy Association Combined Sections Meeting in San Diego.
10. Scientists ID New Genetic Connection for Gout
11. HomeCEUConnection.com Announces Launch of New Website
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... February 12, 2016 , ... Each year, the American Physical Therapy ... Anaheim, CA at the Anaheim Convention Center. Almost 10,000 physical therapists across the country ... in action, learn more about their chosen field and network with their colleagues. ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... February 12, 2016 , ... The ThedaCare ... San Francisco General Hospital on April 5-7. The series is a multi-day, multi-workshop ... habits. The workshops cover a broad range of topics, including coaching skills, the ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... February 12, 2016 , ... AssureVest Insurance ... areas, is initiating a charity drive that will raise funds earmarked to purchase computers ... C. Tayloe Elementary School. , “My school is in a low-income area and has ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... Pittsburgh, PA (PRWEB) , ... February 12, 2016 ... ... serving families of the Pittsburgh metro area, celebrates the beginning of the latest ... help children develop social skills through art. Donations to this worthy cause are ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... February 12, 2016 , ... J Thomas & Associates Insurance ... commitment to act as Agents of Change in the community, announces a new ... families to fulfill immediate needs and help them move into permanent housing. Donations ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/12/2016)... , 12 februari 2016 ... een toonaangevende leverancier van productie en ontwikkeling ... industrieën, kondigt vandaag een uitbreiding aan van ... haar locatie in Charleston, SC ... geleid tot meerdere recente investeringen. ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... NEW YORK , Feb. 11, 2016 ... - Companion Diagnostics in Personalized Medicine and Cancer ... Markets. - High-Growth Diagnostic Testing Markets. - ... Cancer Testing. - Molecular Diagnostics in Genetic Testing. ... - Molecular Diagnostics Markets. - Over-the-Counter Diagnostic Products ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... 11, 2016 Laboratory glassware and ... laboratories. These may range from microscope slides to large ... made from borosilicate glass because of its low weight ... other hand, started gaining popularity over the past decade ... replace glass with plastic in several applications due to ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: