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Study shows colon and rectal tumors constitute a single type of cancer
Date:7/18/2012

rectal cancer and that 51,500 are likely to die from the disease in 2012. Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men, after non-melanoma skin, prostate and lung cancer. It is also the fourth most common cancer in women, after non-melanoma skin, breast and lung cancer.

The researchers observed that in the 224 colorectal cancer specimens examined, 24 genes were mutated in a significant numbers of cases. In addition to genes found through prior research efforts (e.g., APC, ARID1A, FAM123B/WTX, TP53, SMAD4, PIK3CA and KRAS), the scientists identified other genes (ARID1A, SOX9 and FAM123B/WTX) as potential drivers of this cancer when mutated. It is only through a study of this scale that these three genes could be implicated in this disease.

"While it may take years to translate this foundational genetic data on colorectal cancers into new therapeutic strategies and surveillance methods, this genetic information unquestionably will be the springboard for determining what will be useful clinically against colorectal cancers,'' said Harold E. Varmus, M.D., NCI director.

The research network also identified the genes ERBB2 and IGF2 as mutated or overexpressed in colorectal cancer and as potential drug targets. These genes are involved in regulating cell proliferation and were observed to be frequently overexpressed in colorectal tumors. This finding points to a potential drug therapy strategy in which inhibition of the products of these genes would slow progression of the cancer.

A key part of this study was the analysis of signaling pathways. Signaling pathways control gene activity during cell development and regulate the interactions between cells as they form organs or tissues. Among other findings, the TCGA Research Network identified new mutations in a particular signaling cascade called the WNT pathway. According to the researchers, this finding will improve development of WNT signaling inhibitors, which show
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Contact: NCI Office of Media Relations
ncipressofficers@mail.nih.gov
301-496-6641
NIH/National Cancer Institute
Source:Eurekalert  

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