Navigation Links
Study identifies enzymes that help fix cancer-causing DNA defects

Purdue University researchers have identified an important enzyme pathway that helps prevent new cells from receiving too many or too few chromosomes, a condition that has been directly linked to cancer and other diseases.

Mark Hall, associate professor of biochemistry, found that near the end of cell division, the enzyme Cdc14 activates Yen1, an enzyme that ensures any breaks in DNA are fully repaired before the parent cell distributes copies of the genome to daughter cells. This process helps safeguard against some of the most devastating genome errors, including the loss of chromosomes or chromosome segments.

"It only takes one cell to start a tumor," Hall said. "This study gives us a platform for figuring out exactly what these enzymes are doing in human cells and how they impact genome stability and the avoidance of cancer."

Cdc14 has been linked to DNA damage repair in humans, but exactly how the enzyme helps preserve the genome and which proteins it regulates in this process have not been known.

Hall and his fellow researchers developed a novel method of identifying the protein substrates upon which Cdc14 acts. Cdc14 regulates the function of other proteins by removing phosphate, a small chemical group, from them. Using Cdc14 in baker's yeast - which is very similar to human Cdc14 - the team studied the activity of the enzyme on a wide variety of synthetic substrate molecules, looking for similar features among the molecules most preferred by Cdc14.

"We were basically trying different keys in the lock to see which would fit the best," Hall said.

The team identified the most common structural features on molecules targeted by Cdc14 and used bioinformatics tools to pinpoint matching features in yeast proteins. Yen1 proved to be the best match, and further tests confirmed its role as a substrate of Cdc14. Yen1 is the first Cdc14 substrate involved in DNA repair to be identified.

Hall said the remarkable similarity of these enzymes in yeast and humans makes it likely that this method could be used to identify targets of Cdc14 in humans as well.

"Despite belonging to extremely different species, the 'lock' in yeast and human Cdc14 enzymes is exactly the same," he said. "That gives us confidence that we can use this strategy to identify substrates of human CDC14 and how they work to control DNA repair processes and prevent cancer."

Hall said understanding Cdc14's role in DNA repair and how the enzyme binds to its substrates could be used to develop more effective chemotherapeutic weapons against cancer. Many chemotherapeutic drugs work by producing such extensive DNA damage in cancer cells that they kill themselves. Designing a chemical that mimics the features of a Cdc14 substrate would help block Cdc14 from repairing damaged DNA in cancer cells, speeding their death.

"Developing Cdc14 inhibitory compounds could make certain cancer treatments more specific and potent," Hall said. "You could think of Cdc14 inhibitors as kryptonite to cancer cells, potentially weakening their ability to heal themselves and making them more vulnerable to chemotherapy treatment." Hall also is exploring the possibility of using Cdc14 inhibitors to combat deadly fungal diseases in crops.

Contact: Natalie van Hoose
Purdue University

Related medicine news :

1. New study finds 2.5 million basketball injuries to high school athletes in 6 seasons
2. US medical innovation needs smarter incentives to cut health spending, study finds
3. First size-based chromatography technique for the study of livi
4. Male health linked to testosterone exposure in womb, study finds
5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Study IDs surgical patients at risk
6. Allina Health study shows information sharing between health systems reduces tests
7. IU study: Death of public figures provides important opportunities for health education
8. Regulating legal marijuana could be guided by lessons from alcohol and tobacco, study says
9. UCSF study finds codeine often prescribed to children, despite available alternatives
10. New study suggests a better way to deal with bad memories
11. Study recalculates costs of combination vaccines
Post Your Comments:
Related Image:
Study identifies enzymes that help fix cancer-causing DNA defects
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... , ... As health professionals work to improve their approach to healthcare, there ... more than filling out a survey; in many cases health professionals and patients are ... care and research on the importance of active engagement with patients and members of ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... , ... October 13, 2017 , ... PurhealthRX , ... Oil utilizing Purzorb™ technology. Applying the Purzorb™process to full spectrum CBD oil will revolutionize ... providing a CBD form that can be easily incorporated into liquid products, while reducing ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... Many families have long-term insurance that covers care ... have a waiver for care if the client has a cognitive impairment diagnosis. ... for care, is often waived, so the benefits from their insurance start immediately,” said ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... Yisrayl Hawkins, Pastor and Overseer at ... of the most popular and least understood books in the Holy Scriptures, Revelation. The ... that have baffled scholars for centuries. Many have tossed it off as mere rubbish, ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... “America On The Brink”: the Christian history of ... Brink” is the creation of published author, William Nowers. Captain Nowers and his ... veteran, he spent thirty years in the Navy. Following his career as a ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/4/2017)... OBP Medical , a leading ... today announced regulatory approval from Brazil,s ... Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA)) to market ... with integrated LED light source and smoke evacuation ... of a tissue pocket or cavity during surgical ...
(Date:10/2/2017)... Halo Labs announces the European launch of their new ... at MIBio 2017 in Cambridge, U.K on ... in biopharmaceutical samples with unprecedented speed and sensitivity while using far ... Membrane Imaging. ... particle analysis system ...
(Date:9/27/2017)... their devotion to personalized service, SMP Pharmacy Solutions announces their ... South Florida Business Journal,s 50 Fastest-Growing Companies, and listed for ... specialty pharmacy has found its niche.  To that end, the ... by SFBJ as the 2017 Power Leader in Health Care. ... award in October, Bardisa said of the three achievements, "It,s ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: