Navigation Links
Study finds incentive price for reducing HIV risk in Mexico
Date:2/4/2013

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] Studies have found that conditional cash transfer programs, in which governments pay citizens if they consistently practice societally beneficial behaviors, have improved pediatric health care and education in Mexico, increased HIV testing in Malawi, and reduced sexually transmitted infections in Tanzania. Public health researchers therefore investigated whether the idea could be applied to HIV risk behaviors among gay men and male sex workers in Mexico City. A new study reports not only that some members of those populations would change behavior for conditional cash payments, but the exact prices they would accept.

"We're trying to prevent HIV from spreading and we are trying to save money," said public health economist Omar Galrraga, assistant professor of health services policy and practice and lead author of the study published in the February 2013 edition of the European Journal of Health Economics. "We want to make sure that every dollar spent has the greatest impact."

In Mexico, like many other Western nations, the HIV epidemic is especially concentrated within certain populations. Among the capital city's young gay men and male sex workers, the estimated prevalence of HIV infection is about 20 and 30 percent respectively. The Mexican government's health care policy, meanwhile, offers universal access to HIV therapy, which costs $5,000 to $7,000 a year.

Through detailed questionnaires administered to 1,745 gay men 18-25 years of age, Galrraga and his colleagues in Mexico's Institute for Public Health (INSP) found that at a rate of $288 a year, more than three-quarters of the men would attend monthly prevention talks, engage in testing for sexually transmitted infections, and pledge to stay free of STI's with testing to verify that. To obtain a similar level of participation among the 5.1 percent of the sample who were male sex workers, the price was much lower: $156 a year.

The study therefore gives policymakers a specific prediction of how much a program would cost to have high participation, and how much money and how many lives it might save.

"The target population seems generally very well-disposed to participate in these types of programs at prices which are consistent with other social programs currently in place in Mexico for preventing other health risks," Galrraga said.

Men on the street

To gather the large sampling of data, the researchers recruited and trained young members of Mexico City's gay community in 2008 to present the surveys to their peers in discotheques, metro stations, bars, and streets in the city's red-light district. The interviewers briefly explained that they were conducting a survey about HIV risk behaviors and ways to reduce infection.

Consenting subjects were then given a handheld computer with software that administered the confidential and anonymous 40-minute survey. The intentionally discreet technique, Galrraga said, allowed the survey process to appear as if each subject was simply using a cell phone.

The survey software asked subjects about personal traits, risk behaviors, such as the number of recent sex partners and condom use, and health, and then took them through a bidding and bargaining exercise in which they ultimately declared the level of payment they'd accept for participating in either or both of two programs: monthly talks about HIV prevention and STI testing and quarterly check-ins to verify a pledge of remaining STI free.

Monitoring for STIs, Galrraga said, is a proxy for monitoring HIV risk behaviors.

"You want to condition on something you can observe," Galrraga said. "The ultimate goal is to reduce the number of sex partners and to increase the use of condoms to increase safe sex but that cannot be observed directly. A reduction in the incidence of STI's is correlated with the ultimate goal."

The data show that there is an optimal price for a conditional cash transfer program. Just for the monthly prevention talks and tests, for example, the percentage of men who would participate rapidly climbed above 75 percent as offers reached between $7 and $8.75 a month. But participation only inched up a little closer to 80 percent when offers were raised as high as $12.25 a month. Above $12.25 the potential participation rate even started to decline a little.

The result that sex workers would participate for much less money may be a result of their especially urgent need for money, Galrraga said. It is still a complex calculation for them, however, because the workers generally can earn more money for engaging in riskier behavior, for instance by not using condoms. On short-term financial basis, therefore, sex workers incur a penalty for doing what seems to be the right thing from personal and public health standpoint. For them, conditional cash payments can provide at least some compensation for making the healthier choices.

The data yielded other insights, including that about 9 percent of the men would not participate at any price. They tended to be more educated and wealthier.

Since obtaining the results, the researchers have continued their work by implementing a small pilot conditional cash transfer program with about 200 male sex workers and gay men with more than 10 partners a month, Galrraga said. The team does not yet have definitive results to report.

The stakes of the research, however, are high as the epidemic continues on the streets of Mexico's capital.


'/>"/>

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Study Suggests Vaccine May Help Kids With Brain Cancer
2. Study reveals how cancer drug causes diabetic-like state
3. Coffee Drinking in Pregnancy Wont Lead to Sleepless Baby: Study
4. Lower GI problems plague many with rheumatoid arthritis, Mayo Clinic study finds
5. Veggies Like Broccoli, Cabbage May Help Fight Breast Cancer: Study
6. No Added Cancer Risk From Hip Replacement Materials: Study
7. Reported Decline in U.S. Pneumonia Deaths May Be False: Study
8. Early Study Finds Some Promise for Lung Cancer Vaccine
9. Narcissists Often Ace Job Interviews, Study Finds
10. Sexual objectification of female artists in music videos exists regardless of race, MU study finds
11. Soy may alleviate hot flashes in menopause, large-scale study finds
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Study finds incentive price for reducing HIV risk in Mexico
(Date:12/7/2016)... ... , ... Levels of a protein in the blood associated with heart disease ... the journal Radiology. , Heart disease and brain disease exact a major burden on ... population. Damage to both organs often occurs at a subclinical stage, or before signs ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... Camarillo, CA (PRWEB) , ... December 07, 2016 ... ... manufacturing high performance connectors, is now promoting to the US market its advanced ... SPRINGTAC®, ODU LAMTAC® and ODU TURNTAC®. These advanced technologies are ideal for ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... ... December 07, 2016 , ... Augustine Insurance Agency, a ... and business owners in the greater Dallas metropolitan area, is announcing a charity ... Foundation. , Established in 2009 by active police professionals in the Dallas region, ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... Queens, NY (PRWEB) , ... December 07, 2016 , ... ... to business owners and families throughout the Five Boroughs, is launching a charity drive ... League works to continue the traditions and spirit of marines and Navy FMF Corpsmen. ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... Honolulu, HI (PRWEB) , ... December 07, 2016 ... ... Dermatology is proud to announce that its fully redesigned website, which launched October ... well as a sleek responsive design and easy-to-navigate layout. Visitors and patients can ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:12/7/2016)... , Dec. 7, 2016   TraceLink ... Network for connecting the Life Sciences supply chain ... marketplace, today announced that Tjoapack has selected TraceLink,s ... manufacturing customers comply with the rapidly approaching serialization ... Act (DSCSA) in 2017 and the EU Falsified ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... 7, 2016 According to a new market research ... Product Type (Integrated, Standalone), Model (Knowledge-Based), Type (Therapeutic, Diagnostic), User Interactivity (Active, ... is expected to reach USD 1,519.2 Million by 2021 from USD 856.3 ... Continue Reading ... ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... NEW YORK , December 7, 2016 ... Jazz Pharmaceuticals PLC (NASDAQ: JAZZ ), Anthera Pharmaceuticals ... DNAI ), and AveXis Inc. (NASDAQ: ... Biotechnology Sector Index fell roughly 37% to reach a level ... While it is down by approximately 14% for the year, ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: