Navigation Links
Study examines association between urban living and psychotic disorders

The association between psychotic disorders and living in urban areas appears to be a reflection of increased social fragmentation present within cities, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

"There is a substantial worldwide variation in incidence rates of schizophrenia," the authors write as background in the article. "The clearest geographic pattern within this distribution of rates is that urban areas have a higher incidence of schizophrenia than rural areas." Characteristics of neighborhoods that have been associated with an increased risk of developing psychosis include population and ethnic density, deprivation and social fragmentation or reduced social capital and cohesion.

To examine whether individual, school or area characteristics are associated with psychosis and can explain the association with urbanicity (the quality of being urban), Stanley Zammit, Ph.D., of Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, and colleagues studied a total of 203,829 individuals living in Sweden, with data at the individual, school, municipality and county levels.

According to the findings, "the risk of nonaffective psychosis was higher in cities and towns than in rural areas." Of the 203,829 people in the study, 328 (0.16 percent) were ever admitted with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 741 (0.36 percent) with other nonaffective psychoses, 355 (0.17 percent) with affective psychoses and 953 (0.47 percent) with other psychoses. Additionally, the authors found that almost all variance in the risk of nonaffective psychosis was explained at the individual-level rather than at a higher-level variation. "An association between urbanicity and nonaffective psychosis was explained by higher-level characteristics, primarily school-level social fragmentation." The authors "observed cross-level markers of ethnicity, social fragmentation and deprivation on risk of developing any psychotic disorder, all with qualitative patterns of interaction."

The authors comment that, "being raised in more urbanized areas was associated with an increased risk of developing any nonaffective psychotic disorder." Additionally, "this association was explained primarily by area characteristics rather than by characteristics of the individuals themselves. Social fragmentation was the most important area characteristic that explained the increased risk of psychosis in individuals brought up in cities." The authors also note that, "our findings highlight the concern that physical integration alone is not sufficient but that some of the positive characteristics traditionally conferred by segregation, such as a localized sense of safety, cohesion and community spirit, must also be maintained to enhance the mental health of individuals within the population."


Contact: Stanley Zammit, Ph.D.
JAMA and Archives Journals

Related medicine news :

1. Mouse Study May Help Explain Fish Oils Benefits
2. Infants May Display Subtle Autism Signs at 6 Months: Study
3. Queens study exposes cognitive effects of Parkinsons disease
4. Study challenges value of oxygen therapy in end-of-life care
5. Study finds that cancer-causing gene crucial in stem cell development
6. Safety cultures in EMS agencies vary widely, Pitt study finds
7. Hormel Institute study reveals capsaicin can act as cocarcinogen
8. Diet Pill Meridia Ups Heart Attack Risk: Study
9. Pivotal study finds link between PTSD and dementia
10. Double-Dose Plavix Benefits Certain Patients, Study Finds
11. Sleep-Deprived Teens Eat More Fat, Study Finds
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/27/2015)... (PRWEB) , ... November 27, 2015 , ... ... the November 27th edition of USA Today in Atlanta, Dallas, New York, Minneapolis, ... of 750,000. The digital component is distributed nationally, through a vast social media ...
(Date:11/27/2015)... ... ... simply groundbreaking television series, "Voices in America", which is hosted by Hollywood legend, James ... are presently affecting Americans. Dedicated to providing the world with a wide variety of ... focus on, one episode at a time. , In the latest installment currently ...
(Date:11/27/2015)... (PRWEB) , ... November 27, 2015 , ... Dr. ... Medical Associates, Inc. and Dr. Tucker Bierbaum with Emergency Medicine at St., ... observed that both STEMI and Sepsis conditions present in similar ways and require time-critical ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... ON and Cambridge, ON (PRWEB) , ... November ... ... today the availability of a real-time eReferral system for diagnostic imaging in the ... ultrasounds, X-rays, mammography, BMD and Nuclear Medicine tests directly from their electronic medical ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... (PRWEB) , ... November 26, 2015 , ... ... second medical opinion process, participated in the 61st annual Employee Benefits Conference. The ... and took place Sunday, November 8th through Wednesday, November 11th, 2015. The conference ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/26/2015)... 2015 Research and Markets ( ... "2016 Future Horizons and Growth Strategies in the ... Country Segment Forecasts, Competitive Intelligence, Emerging Opportunities" ... --> --> This new 247-page ... therapeutic drug monitoring market, including emerging tests, technologies, ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... 2015  The total global healthcare industry is expected to ... Latin America has the highest projected growth ... Japan ), is second with growth projected at ... increased healthcare expenditure. In 2013-2014, total government funded healthcare was ... 2008-2009 to 41.2% in 2013-2014. In real terms, out of ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... AAIPharma Services Corp./Cambridge Major Laboratories, Inc. ... $15.8  Million to expand its laboratories and global ... The expansion will provide additional office space and ... of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology markets. ... up to 40,000 square feet of expanded development ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: