Navigation Links
Study Shows Cholera Can be Controlled With Oral Vaccines
Date:11/26/2007

SEATTLE, Nov. 26 /PRNewswire/ -- Endemic cholera, a potentially fatal diarrheal disease found in the world's most impoverished countries, could be effectively controlled by orally vaccinating half of the affected populations once every two years for only pennies per dose, according to new findings by an international team of researchers led by Ira M. Longini Jr., Ph.D., a biostatistician in the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. Longini and colleagues will report their findings online Nov. 27 in PLoS Medicine.

While oral cholera vaccines have been available to protect travelers for more than a decade, they have not been used for widespread control of the disease in cholera-prone (endemic) regions in part because their protective potential has been underestimated. In fact, using a computer simulation model based on data from a large-scale cholera-vaccine trial involving 200,000 people in Matlab, Bangladesh, Longini and colleagues suggest that internationally licensed, killed whole-cell cholera vaccines (OCVs) may be highly effective in controlling cholera when given via mass immunization.

Longini and colleagues estimate that cholera cases could be reduced nearly 90 percent among the unvaccinated if just 50 percent of the population received an oral vaccination biannually. Vaccinating just 30 percent of the population every two years would achieve an overall cholera reduction rate of 76 percent. In populations with less experience with cholera than Matlab, at least 70 percent of the population would need to be vaccinated to control the disease.

"This is the first scientific work that shows how we could control cholera on a global level," said Longini, also a professor of biostatistics at the University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine. "Once you get up to about 50 percent of the population vaccinated, you can drive the epidemic into practically nothing."

Endemic cholera is a bacterial infection of the small intestine that causes acute, watery diarrhea. If untreated, it can lead to potentially fatal dehydration. Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease in areas with sufficient medical care, it remains a fatal condition among the world's most impoverished populations. The disease is caused by ingesting food or water contaminated with a comma-shaped bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.

Co-authors on the paper included researchers from Emory University in Atlanta; the International Vaccine Institute in Seoul, Korea; and the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research in Bangladesh.

"These important findings stem from the recent recognition that oral vaccines against cholera confer herd protection -- protection of nonvaccinated neighbors of vaccinated persons," said John Clemens, M.D., director-general of the International Vaccine Institute and paper co-author. "I believe this study will have an impact on the public-health community's approach to controlling cholera," he said.

The research was supported by the Diseases of the Most Impoverished (DOMI) Program of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, a grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS), and the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

At Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, our interdisciplinary teams of world-renowned scientists and humanitarians work together to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer, HIV/AIDS and other diseases. Our researchers, including three Nobel laureates, bring a relentless pursuit and passion for health, knowledge and hope to their work and to the world. For more information, please visit fhcrc.org.

PLoS Medicine is an open-access journal. Everything it publishes is freely available for anyone to read, download, distribute and re-use. Below is a link to the PLoS Medicine paper "Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccines" by Longini and colleagues: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get- document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040336

CONTACT

Kristen Woodward

(206) 667-5095

kwoodwar@fhcrc.org


'/>"/>
SOURCE Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Copyright©2007 PR Newswire.
All rights reserved

Related medicine news :

1. Penn study finds pro-death proteins required to regulate healthy immune function
2. New study shows promise in reducing surgical risks associated with surgical bleeding
3. Study, meta-analysis examine factors associated with death from heatstroke
4. Study suggests loss of 2 types of neurons -- not just 1 -- triggers Parkinsons symptoms
5. Study says COPD testing is not measuring up
6. Preclinical study suggests organ-transplant drug may aid in lupus fight
7. Ability to cope with stress can increase good cholesterol in older white men, study finds
8. High alcohol consumption increases stroke risk, Tulane study says
9. Mailman School of Public Health study examines link between racial discrimination and substance use
10. Pitt study finds inequality in tobacco advertising
11. Stanford study highlights cost-effective method of lowering heart disease risks
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... May 24, 2016 , ... ... corporate identity and website at its “Transforming Outcomes” User Conference in Las Vegas ... reflect i2i’s ongoing success to set the market standard for meaningful population health ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... May 24, 2016 , ... ... of communication enabled solutions and managed services today announced a strategic partnership ... enterprise contact center market. , Altura, one of Avaya’s largest Platinum Business ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... Church, VA (PRWEB) , ... May 24, 2016 , ... ... 14-15, 2016 · Raleigh, NC, http://www.fdanews.com/humanerrordrugdevice , Human error is known to ... is unlikely that human error will ever be totally eliminated, many human performance problems ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... ... Regenerative Medicine is being transformed by ongoing research and clinical findings at ... results as have been achieved with Okyanos Cell Therapy are paving the ... patients worldwide. , As the Medical Advisory Chairman at Okyanos, Eric Duckers, MD, PhD, ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... May 24, 2016 , ... ... or injury that focuses on repairing the musculoskeletal and neuromuscular systems of the ... on functional restoration, NYDNRehab began providing treatments for physical therapy in New York, ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/24/2016)... , May 24, 2016 ... médica para ayudar a los médicos a compartir sus ... pacientes a escala mundial. Profesionales médicos de Europa, África, ... se han apuntado a la aplicación, que combina la ... un entorno totalmente seguro. Educación   ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... May 24, 2016   , ... non-inferiority in overall bowel cleansing and superiority in ... leansing of the ... ) , Norgine B.V. today announced new positive data ... and ascorbate bowel preparation) versus standard 2 litre PEG with ascorbate. ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... Zealand , May 24, 2016 ... informatics solutions for the healthcare sector, has been named the ... Zealand Hi-Tech Awards 2016. Dr Bruce Davey ... acknowledgement for our team.  It,s really good to be recognised ... healthcare internationally. Our products are used in 35 countries around ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: