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St. Jude finds mechanism for faulty protein disposal
Date:12/6/2007

um, molecules called chaperones help to fold up newly made proteins into the exact shape that enables that particular protein to perform its assigned task. Successfully folded proteins are transported to the cell surface or into the blood stream where they do their job. But if the folding does not occur or is faulty, defective proteins are ejected from the endoplasmic reticulum through channels called retrotranslocons and put into the proteasome, where they get degraded. This process, called endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, ensures that defective proteins do not accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum and kill the cell by disrupting the vital process of protein folding.

Previous research identified a channel out of the endoplasmic reticulum for glycosylated proteins, or proteins tagged with sugar molecules. The channel relies on the detection of the sugar molecules to identify the proteins and send them to the proteasome. However, nothing was known about the disposal of non-glycosylated proteins (proteins with few or no sugar molecules attached). The St. Jude team found that this group of proteins exits the endoplasmic reticulum through a channel that is similar to the one used for glycoproteins but that has different components. The team focused the study on non-glycosylated proteins called light chains and heavy chains, which are the building blocks for antibodies made by plasma cells.

We wanted to determine what happens to defective heavy and light chains in plasma cells so we could get a better understanding of the molecules and channels that allow these cells to get rid of defective proteins that cant be used to make antibodies, Hendershot said. When plasma cells become cancerous, they multiply rapidly and continue to produce large amounts of antibodies, some of which are not folded properly. These cells depend on endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation to dispose of unwanted proteins before they clog up the endoplasmic reti
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Contact: Summer Freeman
summer.freeman@stjude.org
901-495-3061
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Source:Eurekalert

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