Navigation Links
Sounding out Congo Red

Brightly colored dyes such as the shimmering Congo Red commonly used in silk clothing manufacture are notoriously difficult to dispose of in an environmentally benign way.

Congo Red is an azo dye, it is toxic to many organisms and is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. To give it its full name it is the disodium salt of 3,3'-(1E,1'E)-biphenyl-4,4'-diylbis(diazene-2,1-diyl)bis(4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate). It is a benzidine-based anionic disazo dye. Benzidine and Congo Red are, however, banned in many countries because of health concerns. But, it is still widely used in several countries.

Apparently it is used not only to dye silk a gorgeous red, but cleverly adds a second shimmering color and rending the red silk shot through with yellow. It also represents a significant effluent problem along with related dyes from textiles, printing and dyeing, paper, rubber, and plastic industries. Its structural stability makes it highly resistant to biodegradation, and obviously its bright color and toxicity are entirely undesirable in the environment.

Writing in the International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (2008, 2, 309-319), Srinivas Sistla and Suresh Chintalapati, from Hyderabad, India, explain a new approach to degrading Congo Red based on ultrasound.

The researchers point out that advanced oxidation processes (AOP) are currently being developed for remediation of contaminated effluent because they generate no hazardous sludge. Oxidative degradation is based on free radical attack using powerful oxidants. However, Sistla and Chintalapati suggest that sonolysis, break down of an organic compound with ultrasound, has so far been investigated only rarely as an alternative remediation technology. Under well-established 'extreme' conditions, materials irradiated with sound at frequencies around 50 kHz are essentially ripped apart by the formation of free radicals, say the researchers. Carbon dioxide and water are the usual products, although with the case of azo dyes, nitrogen would also feature in the byproducts.

Sonication of Congo Red in the aqueous phase with 50 kHz ultrasound transforms it into a milieu of less toxic intermediates that can then be broken down still further by conventional industrial waste water biodegradation treatment. As a proof of principle, the researchers suggest that the combination of ultrasound and biodegradation could allow the color to be removed from dye-contaminated industrial effluent effectively and the toxicity reduced to negligible levels. "The results obtained from this study revealed the ability of ultrasonic irradiation to transform the aromatic inhibitory compounds to less toxic intermediates, which can be further utilized in aerobic/anaerobic oxidation," the researchers conclude.


Contact: Srinivas Sistla
Inderscience Publishers

Related medicine news :

1. Leverage Lifes Homework Hotline Is a Resounding Success!
2. Lucian Leape Institute First Roundtable: A Resounding Success
3. U.S. Food Safety: The Import Alarm Keeps Sounding
4. NBA Legend Dikembe Mutombo Joins Opportunity International Board of Advisors; Opens Doors in Democratic Republic of Congo
5. Women for Women International Congolese Country Director, Christine Karumba, Speaks Out About the Rape Epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Post Your Comments:
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... , ... Brent Kasmer, a legally blind and certified personal trainer is helping to develop a ... fitness app plans to fix the two major problems leading the fitness industry today:, ... type program , They don’t eliminate all the reasons people quit their exercise ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... Experts from the ... AcademyHealth’s Annual Research Meeting June 26-28, 2016, at the Hynes Convention Center in ... topics including advance care planning, healthcare costs and patient and family engagement. , ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... , ... June 25, 2016 , ... The temporary closing of Bruton Memorial Library on ... Observer , brings up a new, often overlooked aspect of head lice: the parasite’s ability ... fumigation is not a common occurrence, but a necessary one in the event that lice ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... 25, 2016 , ... First Choice Emergency Room , the largest network ... the Medical Director of its new Mesquite-Samuell Farm facility. , “We are pleased ... location,” said Dr. James M. Muzzarelli, Executive Medical Director of First Choice Emergency Room. ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... City, Oklahoma (PRWEB) , ... June 25, 2016 ... ... helping both athletes and non-athletes recover from injury. Recently, he has implemented orthobiologic ... the Oklahoma City area —Johnson is one of the first doctors to perform ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/26/2016)... 2016 One of Australia,s successful ... of a new biotechnology company, Noxopharm Limited [ABN 50 608 966 ... and to list on the ASX. Noxopharm is a ... enter a Phase 1 clinical study later this year. ... of the biggest problems facing cancer patients - the ability of ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... -- Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (Nasdaq: JAZZ ) ... Improvements Act of 1976, as amended ("HSR"), with respect ... Nasdaq: CPXX ) expired effective June 24, ... As previously announced on May 31, 2016, Jazz Pharmaceuticals ... which Jazz Pharmaceuticals has commenced a tender offer for ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... , June 27, 2016  VMS Rehab Systems, Inc. ... will take whatever measures required to build a strong ... which is currently listed on the OTC Markets-pink current ... Chairman and CEO, "We are seeing an anomaly in ... understand, not only by the Company, but shareholders and ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: