Navigation Links
Smoking immediately upon waking may increase risk of lung and oral cancer
Date:3/29/2013

The sooner a person smokes a cigarette upon waking in the morning, the more likely he or she is to acquire lung or oral cancer, according to Penn State researchers.

"We found that smokers who consume cigarettes immediately after waking have higher levels of NNAL -- a metabolite of the tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK -- in their blood than smokers who refrain from smoking a half hour or more after waking, regardless of how many cigarettes they smoke per day," said Steven Branstetter, assistant professor of biobehavioral health.

According to Branstetter, other research has shown that NNK (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanone) induces lung tumors in several rodent species. Levels of NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamnino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) in the blood can therefore predict lung cancer risk in rodents as well as in humans. In addition, NNAL levels are stable in smokers over time, and a single measurement can accurately reflect an individual's exposure.

Branstetter and his colleague Joshua Muscat, professor of public health sciences, examined data on 1,945 smoking adult participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had provided urine samples for analysis of NNAL. These participants also had provided information about their smoking behavior, including how soon they typically smoked after waking.

The researchers found that around 32 percent of the participants they examined smoked their first cigarette of the day within 5 minutes of waking; 31 percent smoked within 6 to 30 minutes of waking; 18 percent smoked within 31 to 60 minutes of waking; and 19 percent smoked more than one hour after waking. In addition, the researchers found that the NNAL level in the participants' blood was correlated with the participants' age, the age they started smoking, their gender and whether or not another smoker lived in their home, among other factors.

The team published its results in the March 29 issue of the journal Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention.

"Most importantly, we found that NNAL level was highest among people who smoked the soonest upon waking, regardless of the frequency of smoking and other factors that predict NNAL concentrations," Branstetter said. "We believe these people who smoke sooner after waking inhale more deeply and more thoroughly, which could explain the higher levels of NNAL in their blood, as well as their higher risk of developing oral or lung cancer. As a result, time to first cigarette might be an important factor in the identification of high-risk smokers and in the development of interventions targeted toward early-morning smokers."

The sooner a person smokes a cigarette upon waking in the morning, the more likely he or she is to acquire lung or oral cancer, according to Penn State researchers.

"We found that smokers who consume cigarettes immediately after waking have higher levels of NNAL -- a metabolite of the tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK -- in their blood than smokers who refrain from smoking a half hour or more after waking, regardless of how many cigarettes they smoke per day," said Steven Branstetter, assistant professor of biobehavioral health.

According to Branstetter, other research has shown that NNK (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanone) induces lung tumors in several rodent species. Levels of NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamnino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) in the blood can therefore predict lung cancer risk in rodents as well as in humans. In addition, NNAL levels are stable in smokers over time, and a single measurement can accurately reflect an individual's exposure.

Branstetter and his colleague Joshua Muscat, professor of public health sciences, examined data on 1,945 smoking adult participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had provided urine samples for analysis of NNAL. These participants also had provided information about their smoking behavior, including how soon they typically smoked after waking.

The researchers found that around 32 percent of the participants they examined smoked their first cigarette of the day within 5 minutes of waking; 31 percent smoked within 6 to 30 minutes of waking; 18 percent smoked within 31 to 60 minutes of waking; and 19 percent smoked more than one hour after waking. In addition, the researchers found that the NNAL level in the participants' blood was correlated with the participants' age, the age they started smoking, their gender and whether or not another smoker lived in their home, among other factors.

The team published its results in the March 29 issue of the journal Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention.

"Most importantly, we found that NNAL level was highest among people who smoked the soonest upon waking, regardless of the frequency of smoking and other factors that predict NNAL concentrations," Branstetter said. "We believe these people who smoke sooner after waking inhale more deeply and more thoroughly, which could explain the higher levels of NNAL in their blood, as well as their higher risk of developing oral or lung cancer. As a result, time to first cigarette might be an important factor in the identification of high-risk smokers and in the development of interventions targeted toward early-morning smokers."


'/>"/>

Contact: Sara LaJeunesse
SDL13@psu.edu
814-863-4325
Penn State
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. CDC Launches New Graphic Antismoking Ads
2. Genes May Dictate Teens Susceptibility to Heavy Smoking
3. Parents Divorce May Up Kids Odds for Smoking as Adults
4. Penn study finds smoking prolongs fracture healing
5. Smoking affects fracture healing
6. Study: Smoking Increases HPV Risks; polyDNA Recommends Gene-Eden-VIR Against HPV
7. Children of divorced parents more likely to start smoking
8. Smoking linked with worse urothelial cancer prognosis in patients, especially women
9. Lung Transplant Hazard May Rise With Obese Recipients, Smoking Donors
10. More Evidence That Smoking Raises Breast Cancer Risk
11. Parents: Revealing Your Past Smoking, Pot Use May Not Help Your Kids
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/5/2016)... ... (PRWEB) May 05, 2016 , ... Talent Tech Labs ... HireNurses, on the eve of National Nurses Week (May 6-12). Currently, HireNurses ... employers. With their enrollment into the Talent Tech Lab Virtual Incubation program, they will ...
(Date:5/5/2016)... ... May 05, 2016 , ... Chronic stress can have a silent, yet dangerous, ... the immune system and increase inflammation, both of which raise the risk of heart ... heart disease program at Harvard-affiliated Massachusetts General Hospital. Chronic stress also can lead to ...
(Date:5/5/2016)... Dallas, Texas (PRWEB) , ... May 05, 2016 ... ... and relationship-marketing firm, honored finalists and winners Tuesday evening, May 3, at the ... Dallas, Texas. , Scott Pettigrew, Vice President and Chief Security Officer of ...
(Date:5/5/2016)... , ... May 05, 2016 , ... If you don’t ... marks on your skin, you may want to consider a treatment that some have ... Advanced Dermatology P.C. , Microneedling, also known as skin needling, is a ...
(Date:5/5/2016)... ... May 05, 2016 , ... Pigment Laser Tattoo Removal Center is proud to ... new PiQo4™ laser, the first 4-wavelenth picosecond laser to receive FDA Clearance. This ... laser on the market. Jeremy Miller, Tattoo Artist and former reality show contestant ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/5/2016)... May 5, 2016 ... the  "Europe Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Market and ... their offering.       (Logo: ... research Europe Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Market and ... insights into Systemic Lupus Erythematosus pipeline products, ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ZIONA, Israel , May 4, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... announced today that BiondVax,s CEO, Dr. Ron Babecoff , ... New York City . On ... at Pioneers 2016, a conference presented by Joseph Gunner ... Hotel. The BiondVax presentation that Dr. Babecoff will ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... Jersey , May 4, 2016 ... successful completion of an alternative public offering (APO). This ... owned operating company, Valeritas, Inc. and a private placement ... stock at $5.00 per share. Under the ... May 3, 2016, Valeritas Holdings, Inc. will trade on ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: