WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- One out of 11 school-aged children is diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and up to 40 percent of those kids may display symptoms in preschool, an expert says.
Recognizing and treating the disorder early is important because ADHD has a profound effect on learning and academic development, says Dr. Mark Mahone, director of the department of neuropsychology at Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore.
"Children whose symptoms begin in early childhood are at the highest risk for academic failure and grade repetition," Mahone noted.
"Research shows that children with ADHD have abnormal brain development, meaning that ADHD has a biological basis that often makes it a lifelong condition," he added in an institute news release.
Parents should pay close attention to the behavior of their young children, Mahone said. He added that in children aged 3 to 4, the following behaviors are often associated with a diagnosis of ADHD by the time children reach school age:
"If parents observe these symptoms and have concerns about their child's development, they should consult with their pediatrician or another developmental expert," said Mahone. "There are safe and effective treatments that can help manage symptoms, increase coping skills and change negative behaviors to improve academic and social success."
Useing neuroimaging, Mahone and his colleagues recently found that children with ADHD have a smaller caudate nucleus (a small structure in the brain associated with thinking and motor control) than other children their age. They hope their research leads to earlier interventions for children with ADHD to improve educational outcomes.
The causes of ADHD aren't really known, although studies suggest that genes play a role. Scientists are also looking into whether brain injuries, diet and social environment contribute to the disorder.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides more information on ADHD.
-- Mary Elizabeth Dallas
SOURCE: Kennedy Krieger Institute, news release, July 27, 2012
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