Navigation Links
Scientists may be able to double efficacy of radiation therapy
Date:12/16/2011

AUGUSTA, Ga. Scientists may have a way to double the efficacy and reduce the side effects of radiation therapy.

Georgia Health Sciences University scientists have devised a way to reduce lung cancer cells' ability to repair the lethal double-strand DNA breaks caused by radiation therapy.

"Radiation is a great therapy the problem is the side effects," said Dr. William S. Dynan, biochemist and Associate Director of Research and Chief, Nanomedicine and Gene Regulation at the GHSU Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics. "We think this is a way to get the same amount of cancer cell death with less radiation or use the same amount and maybe cure a patient that could not be cured before."

Radiation therapy capitalizes on radiation's ability to kill cells by causing double-strand breaks in DNA. But the fact that varying levels of radiation are essentially everywhere food, air, the ground, etc. means all cells, including cancer cells, have internal mechanisms to prevent the lethal breakage.

GHSU scientists are targeting the natural defense mechanisms by packaging a piece of an antibody against one of them with folate, which has easy access to most cells, particularly cancer cells. Many cancers, including the lung cancer cells they studied, have large numbers of folate receptors so that cancer cells get a disproportionate share of the package.

Previous efforts to destroy cancer cells' ability to avoid radiation damage have focused on receptors on their surface, said Dr. Shuyi Li, molecular biologist, pediatrician and corresponding author on the study in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology.

To get a more direct hit, the scientists took advantage of folate receptors as a point of entry by chemically binding folate with the small piece of their antibody, ScFv 18-2. The package heads straight for the cell nucleus where a different chemical environment breaks the bond, freeing ScFv 18-2 to attack the regulatory region of DNA-dependent protein kinase, an enzyme essential to DNA repair.

"We are joining a targeting molecule with a cargo," said Dynan. "This strategy targets one of the key enzymes so it's harder to repair," Li said. This makes cancer cells more vulnerable to radiation.

Dynan and Li say the approach could be used to deliver any number of drugs directly inside cancer cells. Future studies include looking at other cell entry points as well as other targets to ensure they have the most effective package. Studies to date have been in human lung cancer cells in culture, so next steps also need to include animal studies.

Their approach mimics a natural process called endocytosis in which cells engulf proteins and other substances they want to let inside but can't fit through normal doorways.

Folate receptors already are being used as direct entry points for chemotherapeutic drugs, including clinical studies of a new strategy for ovarian cancer. GHSU is participating in clinical trials of a therapy that pairs an agent too toxic to be delivered through the bloodstream with folate to better target one of the most deadly cancers.


'/>"/>

Contact: Toni Baker
tbaker@georgiahealth.edu
706-721-4421
Georgia Health Sciences University
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Scientists Pinpoint Area of Brain That Fears Losing Money
2. Scientists Discover How HIV Is Transmitted Between Men
3. Prevention Is Key Research Goal for Premature Babies, Scientists Say
4. Scientists Discover Molecular Pathway for Organ Tissue Regeneration and Repair
5. Scientists find donut-shaped structure of enzyme involved in energy metabolism
6. Neuroscientists reveal new links that regulate brain electrical activity
7. Two UCSF Scientists to Receive Prestigious Dementia Research Honor
8. Johns Hopkins scientists develop personalized blood tests for cancer using whole genome sequencing
9. Scientists Spot Genetic Fingerprints of Individual Cancers
10. Scientists Unravel Mysteries of Intelligence
11. MSU scientists develop more effective method of predicting lead-poisoning risk
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Scientists may be able to double efficacy of radiation therapy
(Date:2/11/2016)... ... February 11, 2016 , ... Pediatric ... to improve care by making data on heart procedures public and easily understandable ... Transparency and Public Reporting of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Outcomes will bring ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... ... ... In a new paper published in the latest issue ... Rohrich, and colleagues, examine and underscore the importance of upper lateral cartilage in ... this vital area. , The upper lateral cartilage in rhinoplasty, refers to a ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... ... February 11, 2016 , ... veEDIS Clinical Systems, LLC, announced ... adaptable algorithms, has been updated to help Emergency Department physicians and nurses identify ... Zikas and a travel history to affected regions, or potential exposure through another, ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... ... February 11, 2016 , ... "What holds you back from ... poses a question as a challenge for his readers to examine the full ... Being" (published by Partridge Singapore), Clarke explores the subject with more depth, revealing ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... February 11, 2016 , ... Life is ... group of men, 60 and older, who gather once a year to play softball ... a love for the game, the more than 50 players who competed in this ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/11/2016)... INDIANAPOLIS , Feb. 11, 2016  Attending college ... for those with type 1 diabetes, the journey can ... class schedules, assignments and campus activities, they also manage ... On top of that, many are living away from ... Foundation (Foundation) Lilly Diabetes Tomorrow,s Leaders Scholarship with ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... ALBANY, New York , February 11, 2016 ... Research announces the release of a new research report, titled ... Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 - 2019". According to the ... expand at a 4.40% CAGR from 2013 to 2019, growing ... bn by 2019. --> --> ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... ROCKLEDGE, Fla. , Feb. 11, 2016 ... have started out 2016 with sales exceeding company targets, ... and have received their trademark from the United States ... Bobby Clark , Chief Executive Officer of PLAD, ... state of Pennsylvania with two ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: