Navigation Links
Scientists develop vaccine that successfully attacks breast cancer in mice
Date:12/13/2011

SCOTTSDALE, Ariz. Researchers at Mayo Clinic in Arizona (http://www.mayoclinic.org/arizona/) and the University of Georgia (UGA) have developed a vaccine that dramatically reduces tumors in a mouse model that mimics 90 percent of human breast and pancreatic cancer cases including those that are resistant to common treatments.

The vaccine, described this week in the early edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (http://www.pnas.org/), reveals a promising new strategy for treating cancers that share the same distinct carbohydrate signature, including ovarian and colorectal cancers.

When cells become cancerous, the sugars on their surface proteins undergo distinct changes that set them apart from healthy cells. For decades, scientists have tried to enable the immune system to recognize those differences to destroy cancer cells rather than normal cells. But since cancer cells originate within the body, the immune system generally doesn't recognize them as foreign and therefore doesn't mount an attack.

The researchers used unique mice developed by Sandra Gendler, Ph.D. (http://mayoresearch.mayo.edu/mayo/research/gendler_lab/), the David F. and Margaret T. Grohne Professor of Therapeutics for Cancer Research at Mayo Clinic in Arizona and co-senior author on the study. Like humans, the mice develop tumors that overexpress a protein known as MUC1 (http://discoverysedge.mayo.edu/de08-2-ctsa-gendler/index.cfm) on the surface of their cells. The tumor-associated MUC1 protein is adorned with a distinctive, shorter set of carbohydrates that set it apart from healthy cells.

"This is the first time that a vaccine has been developed that trains the immune system to distinguish and kill cancer cells based on their different sugar structures on proteins such as MUC1," Dr. Gendler says. "We are especially excited about the fact that MUC1 was recently recognized by the National Cancer Institute as one of the three most important tumor proteins for vaccine development."

"This vaccine elicits a very strong immune response," says study co-senior author Geert-Jan Boons, Ph.D., Franklin Professor of Chemistry and a researcher in the UGA Cancer Center and its Complex Carbohydrate Research Center in Athens.

Dr. Gendler says MUC1 is found on more than 70 percent of all cancers that kill. Many cancers, such as breast, pancreatic, ovarian and multiple myeloma, express MUC1 with the shorter carbohydrate on more than 90 percent of cases.

She explains that when cancer occurs, the architecture of the cell changes and MUC1 is produced at high levels, promoting tumor formation. A vaccine directed against MUC1 has tremendous potential to prevent recurrence or as a prophylactic in patients at high risk for particular cancers, Dr. Gendler says. A vaccine also can be used together with standard therapy such as chemotherapy in cancers that cannot be cured by surgery, such as pancreatic cancer.

For the immune system to recognize MUC1 on the tumor cells, it required a special vaccine that had three parts. One part tricks the body into thinking that the cancer cell is a bacterial infection, one part stimulates an antibody response, and one part stimulates a lymphocyte response. If any of the three components were omitted, the vaccine did not work as well.

Dr. Boons notes that MUC1 is also overexpressed in 90 percent of the subset of patients who are not responsive to hormonal therapy, such as tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, or the drug Herceptin. These so-called triple-negative tumors are extremely aggressive and difficult to treat, Dr. Boons says, and a new treatment option is urgently needed.

"In the U.S. alone, there are 35,000 patients diagnosed every year whose tumors are triple-negative," Dr. Boons says. "So we might have a therapy for a large group of patients for which there is currently no drug therapy aside from chemotherapy."

Dr. Gendler and her colleagues are currently testing the vaccine's effectiveness against human cancer cells in culture and are planning to assess toxicity. If all goes well, phase I clinical trials to test the safety of the vaccine could begin by late 2013.


'/>"/>

Contact: Jim McVeigh
mcveigh.jim@mayo.edu
480-301-4222
Mayo Clinic
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Scientists develop vaccine that attacks breast cancer in mice
2. Scientists discover new way to target cancer
3. Survey reveals scientists have trouble accessing human embryonic stem cell lines
4. Scientists capture single cancer molecules at work
5. Scientists identify strategies to conquer lifestyle and genetic factors related to chronic diseases
6. Scientists discover likely cause of most common involuntary movement disorder
7. Scientists ID Gene That Predicts Chances of Cold Sores
8. Scientists discover anti-inflammatory polyphenols in apple peels
9. Scientists identify key area that could sever communication between brain and heart in disease
10. Scientists identify defect in brain cell channel that may cause autism-like syndrome
11. Scientists Reveal Monarch Butterfly Genome
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/26/2016)... Michigan (PRWEB) , ... June 26, 2016 , ... On ... as sponsor of the 2016 Cereal Festival and World’s Longest Breakfast Table in Battle ... honor of the city’s history as home to some of the world’s leading providers ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... June 26, 2016 , ... Many ... been diagnosed with endometriosis. These women need a treatment plan to not only ... approach that can help for preservation of fertility and ultimately achieving a pregnancy. ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... "With 30 hand-drawn hand gesture animations, FCPX ... Austin - CEO of Pixel Film Studios. , ProHand Cartoon’s package transforms over ... Cut Pro X . Simply select a ProHand generator and drag it above media ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 25, 2016 , ... On Friday, ... presented a Bronze Wellness at Work award to iHire in recognition of their exemplary ... part of the 7th annual Maryland Workplace Health & Wellness Symposium at the BWI ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... June 19, 2016 is World Sickle Cell ... pain and the benefits of holistic treatments, Serenity Recovery Center of Marne, ... Cell Disease. , Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a disorder of the red blood ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... 24, 2016   Pulmatrix, Inc ., (NASDAQ: ... inhaled drugs, announced today that it was added to ... its comprehensive set of U.S. and global equity ... an important milestone for Pulmatrix," said Chief Executive Officer ... of our progress in developing drugs for crucial unmet ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of ... report to their offering. ... kidney failure, it replaces the function of kidneys by removing ... thus the treatment helps to keep the patient body,s electrolytes ... Increasing number of ESRD patients & substantial healthcare expenditure ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... -- Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) announced that ... PCT (procalcitonin) assay as a dedicated testing solution for ... clearance, Roche is the first IVD company in the ... risk assessment and management. PCT is a ... in blood can aid clinicians in assessing the risk ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: