Navigation Links
Researchers identify new biomarker for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the human form of mad cow disease
Date:3/9/2011

Neena Singh, MD, PhD and colleagues at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have identified the first disease-specific biomarker for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), a universally fatal, degenerative brain disease for which there is no cure. sCJD is one of the causes of dementia and typically leads to death within a year of disease onset.

The finding, published in the March 9th issue of PLoS ONE, a scientific journal produced by the Public Library of Science, provides a basis for developing a test to diagnosis sCJD while patients are still alive. Presently, the only definitive diagnostic test for the disease requires brain tissue be obtained by biopsy or after death.

In their study, Dr. Singh, associate professor of pathology at the School of Medicine, and her team found that levels of the iron-transport protein transferrin (Tf) are significantly decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with sCJD well before the end stage of the disease, potentially allowing for earlier diagnosis.

"The decrease in Tf is significant enough to distinguish sCJD from dementia of non-CJD origin with an accuracy of 80 percent," Dr. Singh says. "When combined with the currently used non-disease-specific biomarker T-tau, the diagnostic accuracy increases to 86 percent. This suggests that the two biomarkers represent separate disease processes, and complement each other as diagnostic biomarkers."

A decrease in the levels of CSF Tf reflects the imbalance of brain's iron metabolism that is associated with sCJD. Being a part of the sCJD disease process, CSF Tf is likely to be a more precise indicator of sCJD than the current tests, Dr. Singh explains.

"CSF Tf is the first biomarker that is related to the underlying pathology in sCJD brains," Dr. Singh explains.

Presently, sCJD is diagnosed by testing for elevated levels of the proteins 14-3-3 and T-tau in the CSF of cases suspected of the disease. Since these biomarkers are elevated in several other diseases besides sCJD, the incidence of false positive results is high. Replacement of 14-3-3 with Tf increases the specificity of the test significantly, providing a superior biomarker combination for the diagnosis of sCJD.

The ability to accurately diagnose patients while they are still living is critical to prevent inadvertent spread of sCJD to healthy individuals, to reduce the misdiagnosis of potentially treatable causes of dementia, and to eventually develop potential therapies for sCJD, according to Dr. Singh.

As a part of their study, Dr. Singh and her team estimated levels of Tf in the CSF collected up to 24 months before death from confirmed cases of sCJD (n=99) and dementia of non-CJD origin (n=74). They found that levels of Tf were decreased significantly in sCJD cases compared to dementia of non-CJD origin. Further testing revealed that measurement of CSF Tf alone identified sCJD with a sensitivity of 85 percent, specificity of 72 percent, and accuracy of 80 percent. When combined with the surrogate biomarker T-tau, the CSF Tf and T-tau combination identified sCJD with an improved specificity of 87 percent and accuracy of 86 percent according to the research.

In addition to providing improved diagnostic accuracy, Dr. Singh notes that CSF Tf has several other advantages. It is resistant to degradation by enzymes, ensuring consistent results even in poorly preserved CSF samples; Tf-β2, the brain specific isoform of Tf is equally efficient in identifying sCJD and is likely to provide accurate results even from samples that are accidentally contaminated with blood during the collection process; and, Tf is abundant in the CSF relative to the currently used biomarkers 14-3-3 and T-tau, allowing accurate diagnosis from a small sample volume.

Moving forward, researchers will work to establish a user-friendly, quantitative test for CSF Tf to provide a quick and uniform method of diagnosis for sCJD. They will also continue testing CSF samples from sCJD and other forms of human and animal prion disorders to establish the earliest time point in the disease course when this test becomes positive.


'/>"/>

Contact: Jessica Studeny
jessica.studeny@case.edu
216-368-4692
Case Western Reserve University
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Researchers selectively control anxiety pathways in the brain
2. Researchers develop synthetic compound that may lead to drugs to fight pancreatic, lung cancer
3. Report: International collaboration between researchers results in greater recognition
4. U of M researchers using salmonella to fight cancer
5. University of South Florida researchers find blood-brain barrier damaged by disease
6. Boston researchers create SMArt platform architecture, launch $5,000 health app competition
7. UCLA researchers use nano-Velcro technology to improve capture of circulating cancer cells
8. Aging in place preserves seniors independence, reduces care costs, MU researchers find
9. Elderly see pedestrians half as often as younger drivers, according to Ben-Gurion U. researchers
10. Researchers use human cues to improve computer user-friendliness
11. Researchers find new mechanism behind the formation and maintenance of long-term memories
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/26/2016)... Pompano Beach, Florida (PRWEB) , ... May 26, 2016 , ... ... Green House® Project offering a new model of care for living and ... on three core values: Meaningful Life in a Real Home provided by Empowered Staff. ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... May 26, 2016 , ... ... one that has a significant negative impact on long-term patient survival, reports a ... The results, published online this week in the Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... TN (PRWEB) , ... May 26, 2016 , ... There ... and more than 32 million cancer survivors worldwide. On Sunday, June 5, 2016, communities ... 29th annual National Cancer Survivors Day®. , National Cancer Survivors Day® is an ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... New Hampshire (PRWEB) , ... May 26, 2016 , ... ... which are designed, engineered, and manufactured in Warner, New Hampshire at the MadgeTech headquarters. ... to provide reliable monitoring solutions trusted by government agencies, including NASA. , In ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... N.J. (PRWEB) , ... May 26, 2016 , ... ... delivery technologies and development solutions for drugs, biologics, consumer health and global clinical ... sales office in Korea to support the company’s continued investment and strategic growth ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/26/2016)... According to a new market report ... U.S. Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2015 ... was valued at US$ 5.89 Bn in 2014 and is ... to 2023 to reach US$ 7.99 Bn in 2023. ... needle free drug delivery devices and the market is estimated ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... A key trend that will ... of new treatments. Cardax, a development stage life sciences ... therapy is expected to fulfil large unmet medical needs ... studies to develop new treatments for osteoarthritis. One such ... in osteoarthritis are being investigated, and early trials of ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... 2016 TARE (Transarterial Radio-embolization) ... Savings and Overall Decreased Use of Hospital ... international specialist healthcare company, has today announced the ... Meeting of ISPOR (International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and ... (HCC) using yttrium-90 glass microspheres is associated with ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: