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Researchers discover links between city walkability and air pollution exposure
Date:11/2/2009

human health by triggering or exacerbating a number of health issues such as asthma and heart disease," said Marshall, a civil engineering faculty member in the University of Minnesota's Institute of Technology. "Likewise, physical inactivity is linked to an array of negative health effects including heart disease and diabetes. Neighborhood design can influence air pollution and walkability; more walkable neighborhoods may encourage higher daily activity levels."

In the study, researchers evaluated concentrations of nitric oxide, a marker of motor vehicle exhaust, and ozone, a pollutant formed when vehicle exhaust and other pollutants react, for 49,702 postal codes (89 percent of all postal codes) in Vancouver. The researchers assigned a walkability score by analyzing four common attributes of neighborhood design: land-use mixing, intersection density, population density and for retail areas, the relative amount of land area for shopping versus for parking.

More walkable neighborhoods tend to have mixed land uses, with destinations such as stores and shops within walking distance of people's houses. A conventional street grid and other more walkable road networks tend to have a higher intersection density, while less walkable neighborhoods often have circuitous road networks and low intersection density, thereby increasing average travel distances and reducing the likelihood that people will walk. More walkable areas generally have higher population density. Finally, in less walkable areas, stores devote a greater fraction of their land to parking.

"The finding that nitric oxide concentrations are highest downtown, while ozone concentrations are highest in the suburbs, is not surprising," said Marshall. "Motor vehicle exhaust is most concentrated downtown, leading to the high nitric oxide concentrations downtown. In contrast, ozone takes time to form. Air masses have moved away from downtown--often, to suburban areas--by the time ozone
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Contact: Patty Mattern
mattern@umn.edu
612-624-2801
University of Minnesota
Source:Eurekalert

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