Navigation Links
Researchers determine pathway for origin of most common form of brain and spinal cord tumor
Date:6/13/2012

Johns Hopkins researchers say they have discovered one of the most important cellular mechanisms driving the growth and progression of meningioma, the most common form of brain and spinal cord tumor. A report on the discovery, published in the journal Molecular Cancer Research, could lead the way to the discovery of better drugs to attack these crippling tumors, the scientists say.

"We are one step closer to identifying genes that can be targeted for treatment," says study leader Gilson S. Baia, Ph.D., a faculty research associate in the Department of Neurosurgery at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Baia and his team based their study on the knowledge that in roughly two-thirds of cases of meningioma, patients have a mutation in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene, an alteration that disrupts the expression of the protein called Merlin. Merlin, in turn, kicks off a cell signaling pathway called Hippo, and in the new study, Baia and his colleagues determined that if Merlin is missing, the Hippo pathway is disrupted. In normal development, Hippo controls the size of tissues and organs in the body. It is activated when tissue needs to grow and also acts as a brake on uncontrolled growth. ‪If disrupted, a biochemical cascade produces uncontrolled tumor growth.

In meningioma cells, Baia studied the activation of a protein called YAP1, for Yes-associated protein 1, which is regulated by Hippo. Without it, YAP1 moves into the cell nuclei and activates genes whose products trigger tumorigenesis and cell proliferation.

In recent years, the Hippo pathway has been found to play a role in the growth of other types of cancers, but this is the first time the pathway has been implicated in meningioma, Baia says. YAP1 has also been implicated in other cancers, he says, including lung and ovarian malignancies, and the mutation in NF2 has been found in other, less common forms of brain cancers as well as in mesothelioma, a type of lung cancer mostly associated with exposure to asbestos.

In their research, the investigators collected 70 human meningioma tissue samples and found that YAP1 expression was present in the nuclei of all of the samples, regardless of tumor "grade," meaning it appears to be a molecular mechanism involved in the earliest stages of meningioma development. In the lab, Baia knocked down the amount of YAP1 in cell nuclei and found that tumor proliferation went down. When there was more YAP1, the cells grew and also migrated more.

Baia and his team also injected human cell lines in which YAP1 was overexpressed into the brains of the mice. "With excess YAP, all of the mice got tumors," Baia says.

The next step, Baia says, is to determine the exact genes activated by the arrival of YAP1 in the cell nuclei. Then, the hope is, new treatments can be developed to target those genes, he adds.


'/>"/>

Contact: Stephanie Desmon
sdesmon1@jhmi.edu
410-955-8665
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. UCI researchers create mosquitoes incapable of transmitting malaria
2. Moffitt Cancer Center researchers develop and test new anti-cancer vaccine
3. Penn and Cornell researchers spearhead the development of new guidelines for veterinary CPR
4. VCU researchers identify changes in cholesterol metabolic pathways
5. An important breakthrough in immunology by IRCM researchers
6. Mount Sinai researchers develop a multi-target approach to treating tumors
7. Doubling down on heart failure: Researchers discover new route to disease, and drugs to match
8. Researchers at IRB Barcelona uncover new clues about the origin of cancer
9. HIV drug may slow down metastatic breast cancer, say researchers at Jeffersons Kimmel Cancer Center
10. Student researchers seek to develop new therapies for cancer
11. Researchers call for obesity prevention efforts to focus on community-wide systems
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... Talented ... the lowdown on sciatica in a new episode of "Success Files," which is ... events and innovation and investigates each subject in-depth with passion and integrity. , ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... First Healthcare Compliance (FHC), an ... showcase a range of technology and learning solutions at the 68th Annual American ... to be held October 14–18, 2017 at the Mandalay Bay Resort in Las ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... IsoComforter, Inc. ( https://isocomforter.com ... introduction of an innovative new design of the shoulder pad. The shoulder pad ... comfort while controlling your pain while using cold therapy. By utilizing ice and water ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Dr. Parsa Mohebi, the Los Angeles based ... the newly revamped Cosmetic Town journal section, featuring articles written by ... as Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE). , Dr. Mohebi says “I enjoy ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... Mich. (PRWEB) , ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... has been named one of Michigan’s 2017 Best and Brightest in Wellness® by ... Brightest in Wellness® awards program on Friday, Oct. 20 from 7:30 a.m. to ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:9/28/2017)... , Sept. 28, 2017 Cohen Veterans ... advance the use of wearable and home sensors for ... disorders. Early Signal Foundation, a nonprofit organization focused on ... will provide an affordable analytical system to record and ... ...
(Date:9/23/2017)... 22, 2017 Janssen Biotech, Inc. (Janssen) announced ... from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ... for the treatment of moderately to severely active rheumatoid ... data are needed to further evaluate the safety of ... RA. "We ...
(Date:9/18/2017)... , Pa. and KALAMAZOO, Mich. , Sept. ... Penn. , and OptiMed Specialty Pharmacy of ... partnership to offer a strategic hub service that expedites ... highly sought-after personal spirometer, Spiro PD 2.0, and wellness ... A spirometer is a medical device used to measure ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: