Navigation Links
Research indicates need for effective HPV vaccine for women and men and a simple HPV screening test
Date:11/3/2008

A call to explore a broader use of HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccines and the validation of a simple oral screening test for HPV-caused oral cancers are reported in two studies by a Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center investigator.

Leading HPV expert Maura Gillison, M.D., Ph.D., the first to identify HPV infection as the cause of certain oral cancers and who identified multiple sex partners as the most important risk factor for these cancers, reports her latest work in the November 3, 2008, journal Clinical Cancer Research and in a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) monograph. The CDC report on HPV-associated cancers appears on line November 3 and in the November 15, 2008, supplement edition of Cancer.

In the CDC report, believed to be the first and most comprehensive assessment of HPV-associated cancer data in the United States, investigators analyzed cancer registry data from 1998-2003 and found 25,000 cancer cases each year occurred at cancer sites associated with HPV infection. In additional analysis, Gillison and colleagues at the National Cancer Institute identified HPV infection as the underlying cause of approximately 20,000 of these cancers.

Gillison and team found approximately 20,000 cases of cancer in the United States each year are caused by HPV infection. Oral cancers are the second most common type of HPV-associated cancers and are increasing in incidence in the U.S., particularly among men. Add to that anal, penile, vaginal, and vulvar cancers that are also linked to HPV infection, and Gillison says these cancers, when combined, equal the number of cervical cancers, the most common and well known of the cancers caused by HPV.

While about one-quarter of HPV-linked cancers occur in men, vaccines are currently approved only for use in girls and young women for cervical cancer prevention. "We need to have a more comprehensive discussion of the potential impact the HPV vaccine could have on cancer rates among men and women in this country," says Gillison, associate professor of oncology. "Currently available HPV vaccines have the potential to reduce the rates of HPV-associated cancers, like oral and anal cancers, that are currently on the rise and for which there no effective or widely-applied screening programs." Gillison notes, however, that studies are needed to confirm that the vaccine effectively prevents HPV infections that lead to oral and anal cancers.

Gillison's findings were part of a project known as ABHACUS (Assessing the Burden of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancers). The data studied came from the CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. More than 80 investigators from across the country participated in the project, which addressed a variety of HPV-cancer associated issues, including racial disparity, economic impact, behavioral risk factors, and cancer mortality.

Other then prevention, early detection is held by cancer experts as the best way to control cancer. In the Clinical Cancer Research study, the first to track the disease and related oral infections over an extended period, Gillison found that simple "swish and spit" oral rinses can successfully track oral HPV infection over time. These findings open the door to a potential, non-invasive screening test to detect the disease and monitor for tumor recurrence. Head and neck cancer is the broad term for a variety of cancers of the oral cavity, including the tonsils, base of the tongue, and the side and back wall of the throat.

The study found that oral rinses successfully detected high-risk HPV infections in patients with HPV 16-positive head and neck cancers for up to five years after treatment for their cancer. Gillison says the findings indicate a high rate of persistent infection and reaffirms the connection between high-risk types of HPV and HPV-positive head and neck cancers.

In the study, the researchers used oral rinses to collect cells shed from inside the mouths of 135 head and neck cancer patients. The researchers genetically sequenced the DNA obtained from the rinses and tumor samples to identify those with HPV-positive cancers and determine the HPV type. There are approximately 120 types of HPV, but HPV 16 is one of the two most common associated with cancer.

The analysis revealed 44 patients with HPV 16-positive tumors and found that these patients were more likely to have continuing oral HPV 16 infections both before and after cancer treatment. While this study did not link the continued post-treatment infections to tumor recurrence, it was noted that patients with high-risk oral HPV infections prior to therapy, maintained high rates of infection after completing therapy. The team plans further, long-term research to determine if this continued infection leads to cancer recurrence.

In 2000, Gillison identified HPV-positive head and neck cancer as a distinct subtype of the disease and linked it to improved survival.

"There is no question of cause," says Gillison. "It has now become a question of tracking the infection over time to identify those at risk of developing cancer or cancer recurrence."


'/>"/>

Contact: Valerie Mehl
mehlva@jhmi.edu
410-955-1287
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. ARVO Foundation and Merck to provide prestigious global ophthalmic research award
2. New research finds markers for esophageal cancer before it develops
3. Author Royalties From Autism Book Donated to Autism Research
4. Author royalties from autism book donated to autism research
5. Stanfords Precourt Institute for Energy Efficiency awards new round of faculty research grants
6. SNM to showcase the latest research in molecular imaging and nuclear medicine
7. Urgent need for research into the best treatment for medication overuse headaches
8. Research shows aerobic exercise combined with resistance training improves glucose control in diabetics
9. New Research Shows That Combining Aerobic Exercise With High-Force Eccentric Resistance Training Improves Glucose Control in Diabetes Patients
10. Opt out system could solve donor organ shortage, says researcher
11. Type-1 diabetes not so much bad genes as good genes behaving badly, Stanford research shows
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/28/2017)... ... June 28, 2017 , ... Eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of ... one person dies as a direct result from an eating disorder in the U.S. ... providers. The iaedp Foundation meets this challenge by offering what has become the leading ...
(Date:6/28/2017)... ... June 28, 2017 , ... Park Systems , ... Luncheon for all SEMICONWest attendees and Park customers on July 11, 2017 ... from Dr. Sang-il Park, Chairman & CEO of Park Systems, and Prof. Krishna ...
(Date:6/28/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... June 28, 2017 , ... ... assistance and financial consultations to communities in northern Virginia and DC, is announcing ... help provide for patients with Alzheimer’s and other disorders that lead to memory ...
(Date:6/27/2017)... PA and London UK (PRWEB) , ... June 27, 2017 , ... ... applying to a clinical study is whether they can trust the sponsor to pay ... it is vital that sponsors and CROs establish payment strategies that encourage sites to ...
(Date:6/27/2017)... ... 27, 2017 , ... Building on the success of the ... sixth state to pass legislation which ensures that children can possess and use ... the states of Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Utah and Washington who have also approved ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/13/2017)... Ind. , June 13, 2017 Zimmer Biomet ... musculoskeletal healthcare, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug ... dated June 3, 2015 relating to its Zhejiang, ... "The successful clearance of the ... manufacturing facility is a measure of the progress ...
(Date:6/10/2017)... June 9, 2017  Shane K. Burchfield, DPM, is recognized by ... as a Podiatrist in Alabama . ... First Foot Care. He brings over 20 years of experience, as ... and healthcare, to his role. ... PC is pleased to welcome you to his practice," ...
(Date:6/8/2017)... 8, 2017  Less than a month ago, amateur ... 200,000 companies, including hospital networks, in over 150 countries. ... of the largest online extortion attempts ever recorded. With ... it is imperative that providers understand where the risks ... this — and many other very real cyber threats.  ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: