Boston, Massachusetts A report issued by the Program on International Health and Human Rights at the Harvard School of Public Health proposes a new research agenda to address the sexual and reproductive health and rights of HIV-positive women.
"The Pregnancy Intentions of HIV-Positive Women: Forwarding the Research Agenda," identifies key gaps in current knowledge, and urges a multi-disciplinary research approach to help HIV-positive women stay healthy and shape their families.
Read the full report and a shorter document that highlights the most pressing research priorities.
"Women living with HIV, like all women, have the right to determine the number and spacing of their children," said Sofia Gruskin, Director of Harvard's Program on International Health and Human Rights. "There is a clear and urgent need for more research into how women are counseled and the services that are made available to them."
The research recommendations stem from a conference and symposium convened in March 2010, at the Harvard School of Public Health, one of the first to bring together representatives from across disciplines and experiences on this issue. The more than 60 participants came from diverse country contexts and are engaged in a range of HIV/AIDS and sexual and reproductive health and rights related work.
The resulting report documents current knowledge and gaps in the following areas: desired pregnancy for HIV-positive women; HIV-positive women seeking to prevent pregnancy; safer pregnancy for HIV-positive women; and pregnancy termination for HIV-positive women. It then proposes a research agenda designed to provide advocates, health professionals, program implementers, and policy makers with the tools they need to promote and protect HIV-positive women's ability to achieve their pregnancy intentions.
Women of childbearing age now represent nearly half of the 38.6 million people living with HIV today. To date, research on HIV and pregnancy has generally assumed that women living in resource-limited settings who are HIV-positive will no longer want to bear children. However, with the dramatic increase in access to antiretroviral treatment (ART), there is a much greater likelihood of preventing transmission of the virus from mother to child, and a clear desire by many HIV-positive women in these settings to pursue options for having children.
"The face of the global HIV epidemic has changed over the past decade, and our research agenda must reflect this new demographic reality," said Manjula Lusti-Narasimhan, a scientist for the Department of Reproductive Health and Research at the World Health Organization, which co-sponsored the conference. "We must gather the data and evidence to help us put these women at the center of decision-making on their sexual and reproductive health."
The proposed research agenda addresses the issue from a number of overlapping areas, including from the women, the community, the health system, and the larger legal and policy context. Research recommendations include:
The report urges that research on the pregnancy intentions of HIV-positive women should involve women and their partners at all stages, and take a multi-disciplinary approach to help HIV-positive women stay healthy and shape their families. It also concludes that a stronger evidence base including results from biomedical, operational, policy, and human rights research will provide more comprehensive information relevant to the lives of women and men living with HIV, and create demand for appropriate services and policy changes.
"Researchers, program implementers, and advocacy groups must combine efforts to ensure that there are adequate resources to conduct this research, to design studies across relevant disciplines, and to disseminate important findings," added Gruskin.
|Contact: Todd Datz|
Harvard School of Public Health