Navigation Links
Reactions to HIV drug have autoimmune cause, reports AIDS journal

Philadelphia, Pa. (May 22, 2012) Potentially severe hypersensitivity reactions to the anti-HIV drug abacavir occur through an autoimmune mechanism, resulting from the creation of drug-induced immunogens that are attacked by the body's immune system, according to a study published online by the journal AIDS, official journal of the International AIDS Society. AIDS is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a part of Wolters Kluwer Health.

The study is the first to explain how hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir develop in genetically predisposed patientsand suggests that similar autoimmune mechanisms might account for other types of drug reactions related to variants in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. The lead author is Dr Michael A. Norcross of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. The publish-ahead-of-print article is currently available on the AIDS journal homepage and will be available in the July 17, 2012 print edition.

Abacavir Hypersensitivity Results from 'Drug-Induced Autoimmunity'

Dr Norcross and colleagues performed a series of laboratory experiments to examine why some patients develop hypersensitivity reactions to the antiretroviral drug abacavir (Ziagenalso included in combination products such as Epzicom and Trizivir). Developing a few weeks after the start of treatment, the reactions cause a wide range of symptoms including fever, rash, nausea, muscle soreness, and shortness of breath.

The reactions have been linked to a gene variant called HLA-B*57:01, found in up to eight percent of people of European descent (lower in other racial/ethnic groups). However, the molecular basis by which people with the HLA-B*57:01 gene develop hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir has been unclear.

In model cells expressing the HLA-B*57:01 gene product, the researchers found that abacavir induced a set of unique changes. Abacavir exposure led to the formation of new peptide molecules that bound to specific HLA-B*57:01 binding sites. The result was the creation of new drug-induced immunogens, which triggered attacks by immune cells.

These findings suggest that abacavir hypersensitivity reactions occur through an autoimmune mechanismthe immune system attacks cells it doesn't recognize as "self." This is the same basic mechanism that causes autoimmune diseases such as lupus, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes.

This autoimmune mechanism helps to explain why abacavir hypersensitivity reactions can affect such a wide range of different organs and tissues. It also helps in understanding why the reactions clear up promptly when abacavir is stopped, and why more severe reactions can rapidly develop if treatment is restarted.

"Our data support a model of drug-induced autoimmunity as a consequence of abacavir exposure," Dr Norcross and colleagues write. They believe that a similar molecular mechanism could potentially explain other types of drug reactions involving HLA gene variants. It's also important to identify other factors influencing the development of hypersensitivity, since not all patients with the HLA-B*57:01 gene react to abacavir.

"This study provides important insight into why only certain people show this severe hypersensitivity to this valuable anti-HIV drug," comments Dr J.A. Levy, Editor-in-Chief of AIDS. "The finding represents an example of how approaches to personalized medicine can identify patients who would be sensitive to this side effect of abacavir."

Contact: Connie Hughes
Wolters Kluwer Health

Related medicine news :

1. Delayed Reactions May Outlast Other Concussion Effects
2. Kids Penicillin Allergy May Not Signal Other Drug Reactions
3. Air Fresheners, Scented Candles May Spur Allergic Reactions
4. Researchers engineer a new way to inhibit allergic reactions without side effects
5. Over Half of Adverse Drug Reactions in Hospitals Are Preventable: Study
6. Mayo Clinic wins grant to gauge genetic risk of heart attacks, adverse drug reactions
7. Tainted Cocaine Tied to Severe Skin Reactions
8. Adulterated cocaine causing serious skin reactions
9. Tanning bed exposure can be deadly when complicated by medication reactions
10. RXplore: New Regenstrief tool lets docs instantly track down drug reactions
11. Meat Might Be Behind Many Unidentified Allergic Reactions
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... November 24, 2015 , ... ... their Black Friday sale a week early, offering 40% off select bras and ... intimate apparel industry through both mobile fit technology and the latest fashion, quickly ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... November 24, 2015 , ... DMG Productions announced that they will ... first quarter 2016 via Discovery Channel. Dates and show times TBA. , Aphria, Inc., ... in the business of producing and supplying medical marijuana pursuant to the Marijuana for ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... City, UT (PRWEB) , ... November 24, 2015 , ... ... Forbes Magazine. For a business, it is critical that the first impression be positive ... business, they are not likely to buy anything or want to return. They will ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... Richey, FL (PRWEB) , ... November 24, 2015 , ... ... deems a growing epidemic as deaths from prescription opioids in the United States grew ... and cocaine. In 2013 alone, opioids were involved in 37 percent of all fatal ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ALEXANDRIA, VA (PRWEB) , ... November 24, 2015 ... ... encourages people across the United States to support their local poison centers through ... been designated as #GivingTuesday: calls it “a day that inspires people to ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/24/2015)... -- The uptake of recently approved and pipeline premium products ... market growth to 2021, says GBI Research . ... for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), will be a key driver of ... --> The uptake of recently approved and pipeline premium ... of market growth to 2021, says GBI Research ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... 24, 2015   Renowned ... deliver s advice and insights on ... More than 50% of Dubai ... according to the DHA   femMED launches comprehensive solutions for ... Dubai residents are not consuming enough to keep ...
(Date:11/24/2015)...  Freudenberg Medical has developed specialty tubing for an inexpensive, ... facilities. Africa and ... Nevertheless, prompt diagnosis is important to treat those affected and ... the help of a portable mini-lab or "lab on a ... affected areas and perform rapid testing for HIV. They do ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: