Navigation Links
Protein 'switch' suppresses skin cancer development
Date:9/8/2008

HOUSTON - The protein IKKalpha (IKKα) regulates the cell cycle of keratinocytes and plays a key role in keeping these specialized skin cells from becoming malignant, researchers at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report in the Sept. 9 issue of Cancer Cell.

"We have shown that IKKα acts as a sentry, monitoring and, when necessary, halting proliferation of these important cells. In the first mouse model of its kind, we also found that deleting IKKα spontaneously induced squamous cell carcinomas by activating the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway," said senior author Yinling Hu, Ph.D., assistant professor in M. D. Anderson's Department of Carcinogenesis at the Science Park - Research Division in Smithville, Texas. "These results provide new therapeutic targets for prevention of skin cancer."

Keratinocytes originate in the basal layer of the epidermis to replace skin cells at the surface that have been shed. As keratinocytes gradually move up through the skin layers, they differentiate and eventually form the top layer of the skin, which is composed of squamous cells. The cycle ends through terminal differentiation, in which cells lose their ability to reproduce by dividing in two. They eventually die.

Hu and colleagues reported in research last year that a reduction in IKKα expression promotes the development of chemically induced papillomas and carcinomas, which are benign and malignant tumors of the epithelium respectively. Epithelial cells make up the outer layers of skin and the inner linings of many organs, including the lungs and the gastrointestinal, reproductive and urinary tracts. Most cancers originate in organ epithelial cells. The researchers also demonstrated that an intact IKKα gene is required to suppress skin cancer development.

Downregulation of IKKα has been noted in a variety of human squamous cell carcinomas, including those of the skin, esophagus, lungs, and head and neck.

IKKα's role in maintaining skin homeostasis, or stability, had remained unclear because an appropriate mouse model was not available. To solve this problem, Bigang Liu, the first author, and colleagues generated mice with IKKα deletions in their keratinocytes.

In a series of experiments, Hu's group found evidence that IKKα functions as a sentry that monitors keratinocyte proliferation and then induces terminal differentiation. In one experiment, within a few days of birth, mutant mice had developed thickened and wrinkled skin and gradually showed retarded development. The researchers also found that even a low level of IKKα in the epidermis was sufficient to allow normal embryonic skin development.

The researchers examined the signaling pathways involved in overproliferation and reduced differentiation in IKKα -deficient cells. In one, they found that IKKα turns down a cellular signaling loop that activates EGFR and other growth factors previously found to regulate keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.

Another experiment demonstrated that IKKα deletions in keratinocytes cause skin carcinomas and that inactivating EGFR reverses this process in the mutant mice. Furthermore, either inactivation of EGFR or reintroduction of IKKα inhibited excessive cell division, induced terminal differentiation, and prevented skin cancer by repressing the EGFR-driven signaling loop.

Hu's group concluded that IKKα is a switch for proliferation and differentiation and is essential to maintaining skin homeostasis, or stability, and preventing skin cancer.

"This study has revealed the importance of IKKα in maintaining skin homeostasis and in preventing skin cancer, as well as the mechanism of how IKKα acts in these processes," Hu said. "We will further investigate how IKKα deletion targets a single cancer initiation cell, which will provide new avenues to treat cancer."


'/>"/>

Contact: Scott Merville
smerville@mdanderson.org
713-792-0661
University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Scientists Track Hourly Changes in Alzheimers Protein
2. Computer-Based Method IDs Alzheimers Protein Structures
3. Bone Growth Protein Also Promotes Good Fat
4. Fat Cell Protein Boosts Heart Attack Risk in Elderly
5. Protein Key to Brain Rewiring
6. Recipe for cell reprogramming adds protein
7. Key to virulence protein entry into host cells discovered
8. DIA/AAPS Co-Sponsored Conference to Examine the Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins
9. Protein made by fat cells may increase risk of heart attack in older adults
10. Scientists ID Jekyll-Hyde Protein in Lou Gehrigs Disease
11. A High-Density Lipoprotein Raising Drug That Has a Lower Discontinuation Rate Than That of Extended Release Niaspan Would Earn a 20 Percent Patient Share in the Dyslipidemia Drug Market
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... First Choice Emergency Room , the ... Ogunleye, as the Medical Director of its new Mesquite-Samuell Farm facility. , “We ... new Mesquite location,” said Dr. James M. Muzzarelli, Executive Medical Director of First Choice ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... Dr. Calvin Johnson has ... he has implemented orthobiologic procedures as a method for treating his patients. The ... first doctors to perform the treatment. Orthobiologics are substances that orthopaedic surgeons use ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... Conventional wisdom preaches the benefits of moderation, ... the latter, setting the bar too high can result in disappointment, perhaps even self-loathing. ... toward their goal. , Research from PsychTests.com reveals that behind the ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... Those who have experienced traumatic events may suffer ... unhealthy avenues, such as drug or alcohol abuse, as a coping mechanism. To avoid ... healthy coping following a traumatic event. , Trauma sufferers tend to feel a range ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... Marcy was in a crisis. Her son ... lash out at his family verbally and physically. , “When something upset him, he couldn’t ... would use it. He would throw rocks at my other children and say he was ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... June 23, 2016 Research and ... Excipients Market by Type (Organic Chemical (Sugar, Petrochemical, Glycerin), ... Topical, Coating, Parenteral) - Global Forecast to 2021" ... The global pharmaceutical excipients market is projected ... CAGR of 6.1% in the forecast period 2016 to ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016 Research and Markets has ... 52" report to their offering. ... creates a favourable commercial environment for MedImmune to enter. The ... that will serve to drive considerable growth for effective anti-influenza ... to cap sales considerably, but development is still in its ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 Revolutionary ... Oticon , industry leaders in advanced audiology ... of Oticon Opn ™, the world,s first internet ... possibilities for IoT devices.      (Photo: ... introduces a number of ,world firsts,: , ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: