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Penn-led research suggests a new strategy to prevent or halt periodontal disease
Date:12/7/2012

And when the mice were given the antagonist two weeks after being infected with P. gingivalis, the treatment was still effective, reducing signs of inflammation by 70 percent and inhibiting nearly 70 percent of periodontal bone loss.

"Regardless of whether we administered the C5a receptor antagonist before the development of the disease or after it was already in progress, our results showed that we could inhibit the disease either in a preventive or a therapeutic mode," Hajishengallis said.

This is significant for extending these findings to a potential human treatment, as treatments would most likely be offered to those patients already suffering from gum disease.

Because not all cases of periodontitis are caused by P. gingivalis, the research team also wanted to see whether C5aRA could effectively prevent or treat the disease when it arose due to other factors. To do so, they placed a silk ligature around a single molar tooth in a group of mice. The obstruction not only blocked the natural cleaning action of saliva, but also enabled bacteria to stick to the ligature itself, resulting in a massive accumulation of bacteria. This microbial build-up rapidly leads to periodontitis and bone loss, within just five days in the mice.

The researchers then injected the gum tissue adjacent to the ligated molar tooth with C5aRA in some of the mice, and gave the other mice a control.

"These mice that got the C5a receptor antagonist developed at least 50 percent less inflammation and bone loss compared to an analog of C5a receptor antagonist which is not active," Hajishengallis said.

This result gives the researchers greater confidence that the C5aRA treatment could be effective against periodontitis in general, not just those cases caused by P. gingivalis bacteria.

The team is now working to replicate their success in mice in other animal models, an important step toward extending this kind of treatment to huma
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Contact: Katherine Unger Baillie
kbaillie@upenn.edu
215-898-9194
University of Pennsylvania
Source:Eurekalert

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