Navigation Links
Patient's own immune cells may blunt viral therapy for brain cancer

  • People with a type of brain tumor called glioblastoma live 12 months on average, so new forms of treatment for this malignancy are badly needed.
  • Viruses designed to kill cancer cells offer a safe way to treat these tumors, but the therapy doesn't work as well as expected.
  • This study found that a patient's immune system tries to eliminate the anticancer virus and blocking this immune activity gave the virus more time to kill cancer cells.

COLUMBUS, Ohio Doctors now use cancer-killing viruses to treat some patients with lethal, fast-growing brain tumors. Clinical trials show that these therapeutic viruses are safe but less effective than expected.

A new study led by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC James) shows that the reason for this is in part due to the patient's own immune system, which quickly works to eliminate the anticancer virus.

The findings, published in the journal Nature Medicine, show that the body responds to the anticancer virus as it does to an infection. Within hours, specialized immune cells called natural killer (NK) cells move in to eliminate the therapeutic virus in the brain.

The researchers discovered that the NK cells attack the viruses when they express specific molecules on their surface called NKp30 and NKp46. "These receptor molecules enable the NK cells to recognize and destroy the anticancer viruses before the viruses can destroy the tumor," says co-senior author Dr. Michael A. Caligiuri, director of Ohio State's Comprehensive Cancer Center and CEO of the James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, and a senior author of the study.

"When we blocked those receptors, the virus has more time to work, and mice with these brain tumors live longer. The next step is to block these molecules on NK cells in glioblastoma patients and see if we can improve their outcome," says Caligiuri, who is also the John L. Marakas Nationwide Insurance Enterprise Foundation Chair in Cancer Research. This study of cancer-cell-killing, or oncolytic, viruses is an example of the value of translational research, in which a problem observed during clinical trials is studied in the laboratory to devise a solution.

"In this case, clinical trials of oncolytic viruses proved safe for use in the brain, but we noticed substantial numbers of immune cells in brain tumors after treatment," says senior author and neurosurgeon Dr. E. Antonio Chiocca, who was professor and chair of neurological surgery while at Ohio State University.

"To understand this process, we went back to the laboratory and showed that NK cells rapidly infiltrate tumors in mice that have been treated with the therapeutic virus. These NK cells also signal other inflammatory cells to come in and destroy the cancer-killing virus in the tumor."

The study used an oncolytic herpes simplex virus, human glioblastoma tumor tissue and mouse models, one of which hosted both human glioblastoma cells and human NK cells. Key technical findings include:

  • Replication of the therapeutic virus in tumor cells in an animal model rapidly attracted subsets of NK cells to the tumor site;
  • NK cells in tumors activated other immune cells (i.e., macrophages and microglia) that have both antiviral and anticancer properties;
  • Depletion of NK cells improves the survival of tumor-bearing mice treated with the therapeutic virus;
  • NK cells that destroy virus-infected tumor cells express the NKp30 and NKp46 receptors molecules that recognize the virus.

"Once we identify the molecules on glioblastoma cells that these NK cell receptors bind with, we might be able to use them to identify patients who will be sensitive to this therapy," Caligiuri says.

Contact: Darrell E. Ward
Ohio State University Medical Center

Related medicine news :

1. New drug overcomes resistance in patients with rare sarcoma
2. First patients in US receive non-surgical device of sunken chest syndrome
3. Patients Balk at Asking Health Care Workers to Wash Hands
4. Scans Spot Brain Changes in Patients With Concussion Syndrome
5. MRI shows brain disruption in patients with post-concussion syndrome
6. GHSU researcher assesses driving capability in MS patients
7. Costly, Repeat Medical Testing Common for Medicare Patients: Study
8. Uninsured patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor have higher in-hospital mortality
9. Many Surgical Complications Occur After Patients Go Home
10. New study review examines benefits of music therapy for surgery patients
11. New tumor tracking technique may improve outcomes for lung cancer patients
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/25/2015)... Vegas, NV (PRWEB) , ... November 25, 2015 , ... ... invites patients to learn more about hair loss treatment with the Capillus272™ Pro laser ... an effective solution for thicker and fuller hair, without the need for surgery, prescription ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... On November 10, 2015, ... District Court of Connecticut on behalf of a home health care worker who provided ... or former home health care workers employed by Humana, Inc., Humana at Home, Inc., ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... , ... According to an article published November 10th by The ... as a breakthrough for performing hernia repairs. The article explains that the biggest advantage ... it can greatly reduce the pain that a patient might otherwise experience after a ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... Dental professionals who would like ... , are invited to attend Dr. Mark Iacobelli’s Advanced Implant Mentoring (AIM) CE course. ... OH. , As the co-founders of Advanced Implant Mentoring (AIM), Dr. Iacobelli and ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... ... and athletic programs, launches new Wimbledon Athletics Facebook page to educate ... athletes for unsuspected cardiac abnormalities. About 2,000 people under the age of 25 ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/26/2015)... , November 26, 2015 ... of the "2016 Future Horizons and ... Abuse Testing Market: Supplier Shares, Country Segment ... to their offering. --> ... "2016 Future Horizons and Growth Strategies ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... , November 26, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... announced the addition of the  "2016 ... the European Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) ... Competitive Intelligence, Emerging Opportunities"  report to ... ) has announced the addition of ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... , Nov. 26, 2015 Research ... addition of the "2016 Future Horizons and ... (TDM) Market: Supplier Shares, Country Segment Forecasts, Competitive ... --> --> ... analysis of the Italian therapeutic drug monitoring market, ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: