Navigation Links
Oregon researchers discover a mechanism leading to cleft palate
Date:2/11/2008

By creating a genetic mutation in zebrafish, University of Oregon scientists say they've discovered a previously unknown mechanism for cleft palate, a common birth defect in humans that has challenged medical professionals for centuries.

Many molecular pathways in zebrafish are present in humans and other vertebrates. By studying the induced mutation in zebrafish, the 10-member research team isolated a disruption in early developmental signaling involving Pdgf, a platelet-derived growth-factor protein, and a microRNA known as Mirn140, the researchers write in a paper posted online in advance of regular publication the monthly journal Nature Genetics.

Mutant zebrafish lacking Pdgf had cleft palate similar to many human babies, showing that this growth factor helps to organize cells that make the palate. It came as a surprise that zebrafish into which the investigators had injected too much Mirn140 also had cleft palate.

MicroRNAs are small gene products, found to be involved in gene expression, that were first described in 1993 by researchers at Harvard University. The term microRNA was introduced in when these single-strand RNA molecules about nucleotides in length were more fully detailed in Science in October 2001 by Gary Ruvkun of Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

Mirn140, when operating normally, allows for normal cell signaling by the Pdgfra protein that properly triggers cell migrations necessary for correct oral-cranial building. The researchers showed that Mirn140 blocks the cell’s expression of Pdgfra. Thus, cleft palate can result from too little Pdgfra that occurs because of either a mutation in the Pdgfra gene or too much Mirn140.

"We showed that this microRNA regulates the expression of the gene by controlling the migration of precursor cells to the palate-forming area," said principal investigator John H. Postlethwait, a professor of biology and member of the UO's Institute of Molecular Biology and Institute of Neuroscience. "This is a novel mechanism never before described."

A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of the mouth in which the two sides of the palate did not fuse, or join together, during a baby's early development. Cleft palate can negatively affect speech production, feeding, maxillofacial growth and dentition.

The first known attempt to correct the defect occurred in 500 A.D. The defect occurs with or without cleft lip (a separation of the two sides of the lip), on average, in 1 in 600 newborns, according to the Cleft Palate Foundation, but can vary by race. The highest incidence (3.6 per 1,000 births) occurs in American Indians. Palate formation begins after five weeks of gestation in humans and defects can become visible at 17 weeks, according to WebMD’s eMedicine.

The findings provide a new window into the mechanisms involved in cleft palate and craniofacial defects, but researchers caution that the findings don't point toward new clinical applications.

"Further exploration of how microRNAs and other factors modulate signaling pathways such as the Pdgf pathway during palatogenesis will assuredly continue to provide insights into the cause of, and possible treatments for, human craniofacial disease," the authors conclude.


'/>"/>

Contact: Jim Barlow
jebarlow@uoregon.edu
541-346-3481
University of Oregon
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Oregon researchers find trigger gene for muscle development
2. TriWest Contributes $30,000 to Oregon National Guard Fund
3. Tobacco Industry Puts Profits Before Kids in Defeating Oregon Ballot Initiative
4. Big Tobacco Spends Record $12 Million to Deceive Oregon Voters
5. New Report: Increasing Oregons Cigarette Tax Will Reduce Smoking, Save Lives and Save Money
6. The First Mega-Shelter Arrangement in Oregon Created for Major Disaster Response and Recovery
7. Details of Oregon Wine Regions First Luxury Inn, Spa Revealed at Groundbreaking Ceremony
8. Big Tobaccos Latest Dirty Trick: Deceiving Oregon Voters
9. Oregon Scientific to Sponsor First-Ever Rock Concert on Mount Everest
10. Contents of the McGinnis Mansion Refurbishes Portland, Oregon Sexual Minority Youth Center
11. The First Incisionless Transoral Fundoplication for Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux is Performed in the U.S. at Ohio State University and Oregon Health & Science University Medical Centers
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Oregon researchers discover a mechanism leading to cleft palate
(Date:2/13/2016)... Canada (PRWEB) , ... February 13, 2016 , ... In ... foot forward. They’ll groom themselves to perfection, go out of their way to be ... date – just take a look at any online dating profile. , A ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... Washington, DC (PRWEB) , ... ... ... the Siemens Foundation today announced a new initiative—the Siemens Foundation-PATH Ingenuity Fellowships—to ... settings. The partnership will recruit top students from U.S. universities who will ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... February 12, 2016 , ... As a ... hectic schedule, a demanding job, and no time to decompress, Rabinowitz found herself drawn ... herself to meditation for its impact on her life, implementing a 20-minute-per-day meditation practice ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... 12, 2016 , ... Every winter, someone is killed, injured or loses a ... Burn Center, part of the Allegheny Health Network, has partnered with Etna Volunteer ... Heaters Need Space” campaign. , “Space Heaters Need Space” aims to bring ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... February 12, 2016 , ... Erlanger Agency has announced ... Columbus, OH area. The latest campaign focuses on the fight against breast cancer, fundraising ... now being accepted here . , Carmen is a loving single mother of ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/12/2016)...  Diplomat Pharmacy, Inc. (NYSE: DPLO ) is pleased to announce the promotion of ... Strategies effective Jan. 23, 2016. To learn ... ... ... ...
(Date:2/12/2016)...  SI-BONE, Inc., a medical device company that pioneered the use ... surgical (MIS) device indicated for fusion for certain disorders of the ... Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC) covering the states of Connecticut ... , Massachusetts , Minnesota , ... , Rhode Island , Vermont ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... SEOUL, South Korea , Feb. ... Macrogen, Inc. today announced they will form a ... for precision medicine in cancer. The goal of ... digital-sorting technology with Macrogen,s high-throughput Next Generation Sequencing ... the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: