Navigation Links
One route to malaria drug resistance found
Date:7/24/2014

Researchers have uncovered a way the malaria parasite becomes resistant to an investigational drug. The discovery, at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, also is relevant for other infectious diseases including bacterial infections and tuberculosis.

The study appears July 24 in Nature Communications.

Many organisms, including the parasite that causes malaria, make a class of molecules called isoprenoids, which play multiple roles in keeping organisms healthy, whether plants, animals or bacteria. In malaria, the investigational drug fosmidomycin blocks isoprenoid synthesis, killing the parasite. But over time the drug often becomes less effective.

"In trials testing fosmidomycin, the malaria parasite returned in more than half the children by the end of the study," said senior author Audrey R. Odom, MD, PhD, assistant professor of pediatrics. "We wanted to know how the parasite is getting around the drug. How can it manage to live even though the drug is suppressing these compounds that are necessary for life?"

Fosmidomycin, an antibiotic, is being evaluated against malaria in phase 3 clinical trials in combination with other antimalarial drugs.

Using next-generation sequencing technology, the research team compared the genetics of malaria parasites that responded to the drug to the genetics of malaria parasites that were resistant to it. With this approach, Odom and her colleagues found mutations in a gene called PfHAD1. With dysfunctional PfHAD1, malaria is resistant to fosmidomycin.

"The PfHAD1 protein is completely unstudied," Odom said. "It's a member of a larger family of proteins, and there are almost no biological functions assigned to them."

In malaria parasites, Odom's team showed that the PfHAD1 protein normally slows down the synthesis of isoprenoids. In other words, when present, PfHAD1 is doing the same job as the drug, slowing isoprenoid manufacturing. Since isoprenoids are necessary for life, it's not clear why the organism would purposefully slow down isoprenoid production.

"We don't know why the protein puts the brakes on under normal conditions," Odom said. "Perhaps simply because it's an energetically expensive pathway. But loss of PfHAD1 releases the brakes, increasing the pathway's activity, so that even when the drug is there, it doesn't kill the cells."

Odom says isoprenoid synthesis is an attractive drug target not just for malaria but for tuberculosis and other bacterial infections because these organisms also rely on this same isoprenoid pathway. While people make isoprenoids, these vital compounds are manufactured entirely differently in animals compared with many infectious pathogens likely to cause disease.

Inhibiting isoprenoid manufacturing in malaria, bacteria or tuberculosis, for example, would in theory leave the human pathways safely alone. In people, perhaps the most well-known isoprenoid is cholesterol, with statin drugs famously inhibiting that manufacturing pathway.

Odom, who treats patients at St. Louis Children's Hospital, said she sees a handful of malaria cases each year, mostly in patients who have recently traveled to parts of the world where malaria is common. The parasite remains a massive global health problem, causing about 627,000 deaths in 2012 alone, according to the World Health Organization. Most deaths are in children under age 5.

Despite this public health burden, malaria is understudied in the lab because it is notoriously difficult to grow. It has a complex lifecycle that includes two-way transfers between mosquito and human and spans different forms in the human liver and red blood cells.

"The malaria parasite is difficult to work with in the lab; it's nearly impossible to replicate the lifecycle," Odom said. "That's why it was so exciting to be able to do this kind of study in malaria, rather than in a typical model organism like yeast. This genetic study would not have been possible even five years ago because the gene sequencing technology was not there."


'/>"/>

Contact: Julia Evangelou Strait
straitj@wustl.edu
314-286-0141
Washington University School of Medicine
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Novel drug candidates offer new route to controlling inflammation
2. Doubling down on heart failure: Researchers discover new route to disease, and drugs to match
3. New roadmap suggests proven routes to ending health disparities
4. A new route for tackling treatment-resistant prostate cancer
5. Auto-immune disease: The viral route is confirmed
6. Federal Safe Routes to School program reduces child injuries by more than 40 percent in New York City
7. Employee Wellness Challenge Get Fit on Route 66 Has New Mobile App, Announces Health Enhancement Systems
8. A circuitous route to therapy resistance
9. Patheon to Host Complimentary Seminar on “Robustness, Reproducibility and Risk Management; the Route to Successful Commercialisation” at Patheon Bourgoin-Jallieu site
10. Jekyll-and-Hyde protein offers a new route to cancer drugs
11. UNC child neurologist finds potential route to better treatments for Fragile X, autism
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
One route to malaria drug resistance found
(Date:6/25/2016)... Oklahoma (PRWEB) , ... June 25, 2016 , ... ... both athletes and non-athletes recover from injury. Recently, he has implemented orthobiologic procedures ... Oklahoma City area —Johnson is one of the first doctors to perform the ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Angeles, CA (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... surgery procedures that most people are unfamiliar with. The article goes on to state ... procedures, but also many of these less common operations such as calf and cheek ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... crisis. Her son James, eight, was out of control. Prone to extreme mood shifts and ... him, he couldn’t control his emotions,” remembers Marcy. “If there was a knife on ... say he was going to kill them. If we were driving on the freeway, ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... now offering micro-osteoperforation for accelerated orthodontic treatment. Dr. Cheng has extensive experience with ... Damon brackets , AcceleDent, and accelerated osteogenic orthodontics. , Micro-osteoperforation is a ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... 2016 , ... People across the U.S. are sharpening their pencils and honing ... contest in which patients and their families pay tribute to a genetic counselor by ... Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Annual Education Conference (AEC) this September. , In ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the ... report to their offering. ... failure, it replaces the function of kidneys by removing the ... the treatment helps to keep the patient body,s electrolytes such ... Increasing number of ESRD patients & substantial healthcare expenditure on ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... June 23, 2016  In a startling report released today, ... residents by lacking a comprehensive, proven plan to eliminate prescription opioid ... ranking of how states are tackling the worst drug crisis in ... states – Kentucky , New Mexico ... . Of the 28 failing states, three – ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016 Capricor Therapeutics, Inc. ... biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development and ... enrollment in its ongoing randomized HOPE-Duchenne clinical trial ... of its 24-patient target. Capricor expects the trial ... of 2016, and to report top line data ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: