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Novel imaging technique reveals brain abnormalities that may play key role in ADHD
Date:11/17/2008

November 17, 2008 (Baltimore, MD)A study published today in the online advance edition of The American Journal of Psychiatry for the first time reveals shape differences in the brains of children with ADHD, which could help pinpoint the specific neural circuits involved in the disorder. Researchers from the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Md. and the Johns Hopkins Center for Imaging Science used a new analysis tool, large deformation diffeomorphic mapping (LDDMM), which allowed them to examine the precise shape of the basal ganglia. The study found boys with ADHD had significant shape differences and decreases in overall volume of the basal ganglia compared to their typically developing peers. Girls with ADHD did not have volume or shape differences, suggesting sex strongly influences the disorder's expression.

Previous studies examining the basal ganglia in children with ADHD were limited to volume analysis and had conflicting results, with some reporting a smaller volume and some reporting no difference in volume. LDDMM provides detailed analysis of the shape of specific brain regions, allowing for precise examination of brain structures well beyond what has been examined in previous MRI studies of ADHD. In this study, LDDMM was used to map the brains of typically developing children in order to generate a basal ganglia template. This is the first reported template of the basal ganglia. After creating LDDMM mappings of the basal ganglia of each child with ADHD, statistical analysis was conducted to compare them to the template.

In this study, the initial volume analysis revealed boys with ADHD had significantly smaller basal ganglia volumes compared with typically-developing boys. Moving beyond the standard volume analysis, the LDDMM revealed shape abnormalities in several regions of the basal ganglia. Comparison of the standard volume and LDDMM analysis of girls with ADHD and their typically developing peers failed to reveal
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Contact: Megan Lustig
mlustig@spectrumscience.com
202-955-6222
Kennedy Krieger Institute
Source:Eurekalert

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