Navigation Links
Novel MRI technique shows secondhand smoke damages lungs

CHICAGO For the first time, researchers have identified structural damage to the lungs caused by secondhand cigarette smoke.

The results of the study, conducted by researchers at the University of Virginia School of Medicine in Charlottesville and The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, were presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Its long been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to secondhand smoke may cause physical damage to the lungs, but previous methods of analyzing lung changes were not sensitive enough to detect it, said Chengbo Wang, Ph.D., magnetic resonance physicist in the Department of Radiology at The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia.

In recent years, secondhand smoke has emerged as a public health threat. It has been classified as a carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency and has been linked to heart disease, lung cancer and a number of respiratory ailments, including asthma and chronic bronchitis. Children are particularly susceptible to the harmful effects of secondhand smoke. According to the American Lung Association, 35 percent of American children live in homes where regular smoking occurs.

Dr. Wang and colleagues used long-time-scale, global helium-3 diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the lungs of 43 volunteers, including seven current and former smokers and 36 people who had never smoked, 18 of whom had a high level of exposure to secondhand smoke.

Helium-3 diffusion MRI differs from conventional MRI in that the patient inhales a specially prepared helium gas prior to imaging, and the scanner is adjusted to collect images showing this helium gas in tissue. MR measures how far the helium atoms move, or diffuse, inside the lungs during a specific time period 1.5 seconds in this study. Using this method, radiologists and physicists can detect changes deep in the small airways and sacs in the lungs, which can break down, become enlarged and develop holes after prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke. Helium-3 diffusion MRI identifies this damage by measuring the increased distance the helium atoms move.

With this technique, we are able to assess lung structure on a microscopic level, Dr. Wang said.

For the study, measurements were translated into scores called apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for each of the participants. An increased ADC value indicates that the helium atoms were able to travel farther during the measurement time. Fifty-seven percent of the smokers and 33 percent of the nonsmokers with high exposure to secondhand smoke had ADC values greater than 0.024, suggesting that early lung damage was present. In addition, 14 percent of smokers, 67 percent of high-exposure nonsmokers, and 39 percent of low-exposure nonsmokers had ADC values below 0.0185. Relatively low ADC values in adults are a possible indication of a developing respiratory problem, such as chronic bronchitis or asthma.

These findings suggest that breathing secondhand smoke can injure your lungs, Dr. Wang said. Since legislation to limit public exposure to secondhand smoke is still being considered in many states, we hope that our work can be used to add momentum to the drive to pass such legislation.


Contact: Linda Brooks
Radiological Society of North America

Related medicine news :

1. Novel 3-D cell culture model shows selective tumour uptake of nanoparticles
2. Novel Cooling Therapy May Have Aided Injured Football Player
3. Novel virus detection identifies new viruses in study of respiratory infections and asthma attacks
4. Researchers uncover novel mechanism that balances the sizes of functional areas in the brain
5. ECLIPSE data on effects of Otsukas investigational novel treatment, Tolvaptan
6. SNM seeks novel approaches to molecular imaging to showcase at annual meeting
7. GrantAdler Shipping Novel Implantable Vascular Access Port
8. SNM seeks novel approaches to molecular imaging to showcase at annual meeting
9. Novel strategy under study for aggressive leukemia
10. ISTO Technologies Receives 510(k) Clearance for a Novel Bone Graft Substitute and Bone Graft Extender
11. 454 Sequencing(TM): Science Paper Describes a Novel, Highly Efficient Method of Sequencing Ancient DNA; Sequences the Mitochondria of 10 Individual Mammoths to Prove It
Post Your Comments:
(Date:6/27/2016)... KS (PRWEB) , ... June 27, 2016 , ... ... retailers of Eyeglasses . , Millions of individuals in the United States and ... have become a way to both correct vision and make a fashion statement. Even ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... 2016 , ... Pixel Film Studios Released ProSlice Levels, a Media Slicing Effect ... videos a whole new perspective by using the title layers in ProSlice Levels ... , ProSlice Levels contains over 30 Different presets to choose from. FCPX ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... June 26, 2016 , ... Many ... been diagnosed with endometriosis. These women need a treatment plan to not only ... approach that can help for preservation of fertility and ultimately achieving a pregnancy. ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 25, 2016 , ... The temporary closing of Bruton Memorial Library ... City Observer , brings up a new, often overlooked aspect of head lice: the parasite’s ... for fumigation is not a common occurrence, but a necessary one in the event that ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... As a lifelong Southern Californian, Dr. Omkar ... M.D from the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. He trained in Internal ... complete his fellowship in hematology/oncology at the UCLA-Olive View-Cedars Sinai program where he had ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... , June 24, 2016 The Academy of ... recommendations that would allow biopharmaceutical companies to ... entities that make formulary and coverage decisions, a move ... of new medicines. The recommendations address restrictions ... appear on the drug label, a prohibition that hinders ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... and SAN CLEMENTE, Calif. , June 24, ... -based mobile pulmonary function testing company, is now able to perform ... developed by ndd Medical Technologies , Inc. ... in hospital-based labs.  Thanks to ndd,s EasyOne PRO ® , ARL ... can get any needed testing done in the comfort of her ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... -- According to a new market research ... Safety Pen Needles), Needle Length (4mm, 5mm, 6mm, 8mm, ... Purchase (Retail, Non-Retail) - Trends & Global Forecasts to ... for the forecast period of 2016 to 2021. This ... 2021 from USD 1.65 Billion in 2016, growing at ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: