Navigation Links
News Tips from the Journal of Neuroscience
Date:11/13/2007

1. Sorting Out the Bitters

Maik Behrens, Susann Foerster, Frauke Staehler, Jan-Dirk Raguse, and Wolfgang Meyerhof

The story goes that bitter taste receptors are there to protect us from toxins, which, of course, have diverse chemical structures. It has been debated whether we can discriminate between bitter-tasting compounds and thus whether we need multiple bitter receptors. Bitter taste is encoded by a family of 25 TAS2 receptors (TAS2Rs) expressed on taste receptor cells in circumvallate (CV) taste buds. This week, Behrens et al. show that human taste receptor cells differ in the expression level of TAS2R genes and in the number of cells expressing a particular TAS2R. All 25 human receptors were expressed in CV taste buds, suggesting that they act as bitter sensors. However, the number and expression level of TAS2Rs differed between human taste receptor cells. The authors estimate that an individual cell may express no more than 4 to 11 TAS2Rs, and they suggest that no two CV taste buds have the same complement of TAS2Rs.


2. Warming Up to Plasticity in the Fly

I-Feng Peng, Brett A. Berke, Yue Zhu, Wei-Hua Lee, Wenjia Chen, and Chun- Fang Wu

In this issue, Peng et al. report a cellautonomous enhancement of axonal arborization with increased environmental temperature. Using the GAL4-UAS system, the authors visualized green fluorescent protein-labeled mushroom body Kenyon cells in the Drosophila brain. Warming flies at 30C for days 2 to 7 after eclosion increased axonal branching as well as the overgrowth of nerve terminals. Similar effects were seen for embryonic neurons in vitro. The temperature-sensitive morphological changes were accompanied by changes in cell excitability and ion channel expression. As a result, spontaneous calcium transients were more frequent, particularly in growth cones. The increase in intracellular calcium was blocked by tetrodotoxin and accompanied by upregulation of calcium currents and downregulation of potassium currents. Signaling through cAMP pathways downstream of calcium, including Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase, appear to link the channel activity to more robust growth.


3. Cocaine, Serotonin, and Conditioned Place Preference

Thomas S. Hnasko, Bethany N. Sotak, and Richard D. Palmiter

The corner bar for the alcoholic or the candy shop for the chocoholic can be irresistible. In the laboratory, conditioned place preference (CPP) is a behavioral measure of the learned association between a rewarding drug and the place where it was received. CPP for cocaine is usually attributed to increases in extracellular dopamine, but cocaine also inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. This week, Hnasko et al. examined CPP in dopamine-depleted (DD) mice. These animals lacked the catecholaminesynthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, but only in dopaminergic neurons. DD mice showed CPP for cocaine at higher doses than controls, but fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, also produced CPP. CPP for either cocaine or fluoxetine required 5-HT1 receptors, suggesting that in the absence of dopamine, CPP arises from cocaine blockade of serotonin reuptake. The authors postulate that CPP in DD mice involves serotonin activation of dopamine neurons.


4. Targeted Immunotherapy of T-Cells in EAE

Sushmita Sinha, Sandhya Subramanian, Thomas M. Proctor, Laurie J. Kaler, Marjorie Grafe, Rony Dahan, Jianya Huan, Arthur A. Vandenbark, Gregory G. Burrows, and Halina Offner

Regulating T-cell responses is one therapeutic strategy for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Specific recombinant T-cell receptor ligands (RTLs) can prevent or treat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used animal model of MS. These RTLs contain encephalitogenic peptides linked to the outer two domains of restricting MHC class II molecules. This week, Sinha et al. constructed a new one, RTL551, from the outer domains of the I-Ab class II molecule and an encephalitogenic peptide derived from myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG-35-55). RTL551 reduced the severity of active and passive MOG-induced EAE in mice. For passively transferred EAE, the authors introduced green fluorescent protein labeled, MOG-35-55-reactive T-cells. The transferred cells preferentially expressed the pathogenic cytokine IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor α(TNFα), which were downregulated by RTL551. RTL551 also reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord of mice with passive EAE.


'/>"/>

Contact: Sara Harris
sharris@sfn.org
202-962-4000
Society for Neuroscience
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. News briefs from the journal Chest, August 2007
2. The New England Journal of Medicine Publishes EURIDIS/ADONIS Study Results Showing Dronedarone Maintained Sinus Rhythm in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter With no Observed Pro-Arrhythmia
3. Elsevier launches new journal: Stem Cell Research
4. Elsevier announces new journal on inflammatory bowel diseases
5. National Osteoporosis Foundation Teams Up With Ladies Home Journal Magazine to Launch a 10-city Mall Walk Tour
6. Cleveland Clinic Press Releases Journal-Writing Book Write for Life: Healing Body, Mind, and Spirit Through Journal Writing by Sheppard B. Kominars, Ph.D.
7. Good Clinical Practice Journal Awards: Winners Announced
8. Maimonides Expands Circulation of Physicians Practice Journal to Staten Island Doctors
9. American Heart Association Surgical Supplement Journal Report: Appropriate Hospital Discharge System Can Prevent Future Cardiac Events
10. Takeda statement on ACTOS meta-analysis published in the Journal of the American Medical Association
11. Takeda Statement on ACTOS(R) (Pioglitazone HCl) Meta-Analysis Published in the Journal of the American Medical Association
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:1/21/2017)... ... ... Seamild, the largest manufacturer of oats in China, is now aiming at global ... is recognized globally as one of the healthiest cereals, XieQingkui, the founder of Seamild, ... move to sow the seed of good karma. Buddhism spirit featuring benevolence and sacrifice ...
(Date:1/21/2017)... Pekin, IL (PRWEB) , ... January 21, 2017 , ... ... disorders. Even when individuals experience the freedom of recovery, they often feel shame for ... abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the workshop, “Rising Strong in Life After ...
(Date:1/20/2017)... ... January 20, 2017 , ... Source Vitál Apothecary, a skin and ... essential oils, announced the company had a successful visit to the 2017 ECRM Diet, ... gives companies that work in the nutritional, sports and health industries a chance to ...
(Date:1/20/2017)... ... January 20, 2017 , ... International Protein, a company based out ... announced it attended the January ECRM trade show in Hilton Head, SC. , ... was determined to create a line of products that would elevate her fitness regime. ...
(Date:1/20/2017)... ... ... “The Angel”: a heartwarming and earnest tale of faith and believing in the ... is the creation of published author, Marjorie Lund-Fontaine, a former professional violinist, alumnus of ... asked of her new book, Marjorie says, “‘The Angel’ was written as a fairytale, ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:1/19/2017)... , Jan. 19, 2017 Conference Call and Webcast to ... ) today announced it will release results for the fourth quarter ... ... host a conference call at 4:30 PM ET on Wednesday, February ... full year 2016 financial results and other corporate activities. To participate ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... , Jan. 19, 2017 This report ... current and future scenario of the global market. Large ... opioid consumption. Severe chronic constipation is a major side ... traditional laxatives. Hence, novel targeted therapy has been prescribed ... sufferers, launch of targeted medicines, and growing awareness about ...
(Date:1/19/2017)...  Stealth BioTherapeutics Inc. ( Stealth ), a clinical-stage ... announced new additions to its senior leadership team: ... and Daniel Geffken as interim Chief Financial ... , Pharm.D. has been promoted to Chief Clinical Development ... Doug and Daniel to our management team, as both ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: