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New therapy strategy could help treat cancer that has spread from breast to brain
Date:8/6/2013

Researchers at UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have successfully combined cellular therapy and gene therapy in a mouse-model system to develop a viable treatment strategy for breast cancer that has spread to a patient's brain.

The research, led by Carol Kruse, a professor of neurosurgery and member of the Jonsson Cancer Center and the UCLA Brain Research Institute, was published Aug. 1 in the journal Clinical Cancer Research.

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women, and metastasis is a major cause of health deterioration and death from the disease. Managing metastasis is difficult for several reasons: The circulatory network known as the bloodbrain barrier prevents many anti-cancer drugs from reaching areas of the brain to which cancer has spread, and metastases have a tendency to spring up in multiple brain locations simultaneously, making current treatments such as radiation challenging.

Cellular therapy is a type of immunotherapy that uses T cells, the foot soldiers of the immune system, that have been sensitized in the laboratory to kill breast cancer cells. These sensitized T cells are injected into the parts of the brain to which cancer has spread. The research shows that the T cells can move through tissue and recognize and directly kill the tumor cells.

With the gene therapy, genetically modified cancer cells are killed by a drug called 5-flurocytosine (5-FC). To get the gene into the cancer cells, the researchers first insert it into a virus that can infect the tumor cells. After the virus has infected the cells, non-toxic 5-FC is given to the patient. Tumor cells infected by the virus convert the non-toxic drug to a toxic form that kills the cancer cells. Dr. Noriyuki Kasahara, a professor in the department of medicine at UCLA, developed the gene therapy method in his laboratory.

While the two methods alone each show efficacy in mouse models, the greatest reduction
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Contact: Shaun Mason
smason@mednet.ucla.edu
310-206-2805
University of California - Los Angeles
Source:Eurekalert

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