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New technique takes a big step in examination of small structures
Date:3/5/2008

es well below the freezing point of water. This decreases damage from the electron beam and allows the specimens to be examined for a longer period of time. Longer exposure time allows for sharper, more detailed images.

Researchers using cryo-EM had obtained images at a resolution of 6-9 angstroms but could not differentiate between smaller elements of the structure spaced only 4.5 angstroms apart.

"There are different elements that make up the protein building blocks of the virus," Jiang said. "It is like examining a striped blanket. From a distance, the stripes blur together and the blanket appears to be one solid color. As you get closer you can see the different stripes, and if you use a magnifying glass you can see the strands of string that make up the material. The resolution needs to be smaller than the distance between the strands of thread in order to see two separate strands.

"By being able to zoom in, researchers were able to see components that blurred together at the earlier achieved resolution."

Cryo-EM requires high-end electron microscopes and powerful computing resources. The research team used the Baylor College of Medicine's cryoelectron microscope. It is expected that Purdue will install a state-of-the-art cryoelectron microscope in 2009.

In 2006 Purdue received a $2 million grant from the National Institute of Health to purchase the microscope. It will be installed in Hockmeyer Hall of Structural Biology, expected to open in 2009.

Computer programs are used to extract the signal from the microscope and to combine thousands of two-dimensional images into an accurate three-dimensional image that maps the structure of the virus. This requires use of a large data set and could not have been done without the resources of Purdue's Office of Information Technology, or ItaP, Jiang said.

Jiang used Purdue's Condor program - which links computers including desktop machines and large, power
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Contact: Elizabeth K. Gardner
ekgardner@purdue.edu
765-494-2081
Purdue University
Source:Eurekalert  

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