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New peptide communication factor enabling bacteria to 'talk to each other' discovered
Date:10/29/2007

Jerusalem Discovery by Hebrew University of Jerusalem researchers of a new communication factor that enables bacteria to talk to each other and causes their death could have significant consequences leading to development of a new class of antibiotic medications.

Bacteria are traditionally considered unicellular organisms. However, increasing experimental evidence indicates that bacteria seldom behave as isolated organisms. Instead, they are members of a community in which the isolated organisms communicate among themselves, thereby manifesting some multi-cellular behaviors.

In an article published Friday (Oct. 26) in the journal Science, the Hebrew University scientists describe the new communication factor they have discovered that is produced by the intestinal bacteria Escherichia coli. The new factor is secreted by the bacteria and serves as a communication signal between single bacterial cells.

The research was carried out by a group headed by Prof. Hanna Engelberg-Kulka of the Department of Molecular Biology at the Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School. It includes Ph.D. student Ilana Kolodkin-Gal , and a previous Ph.D. student, Dr Ronen Hazan. In addition, the research included Dr Ariel Gaathon from the Facilities Unit of the Medical School.

The communication factor formed by Escherichia coli enables the activation of a built-in suicide module which is located on the bacterial chromosome and is esponsible for bacterial cell death under stressful conditions. Therefore, the new factor has been designated EDF (Extra-cellular Death Factor).

While suicidal cell death is counterproductive for the individual bacterial cell, it becomes effective for the bacterial community as a whole by the simultaneous action of a group of cells that are signaled by EDF. Under stressful conditions in which the EDF is activated, a major sub-population within the bacterial culture dies, allowing the survival of the population as a whole.

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Contact: Jerry Barach
jerryb@savion.huji.ac.il
972-258-82904
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem  
Source:Eurekalert

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