Navigation Links
New non-invasive technique controls size of molecules penetrating the blood-brain barrier
Date:8/14/2014

New York, NYAugust 14, 2014A new technique developed by Elisa Konofagou, associate professor of biomedical engineering and radiology at Columbia Engineering, has demonstrated for the first time that the size of molecules penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be controlled using acoustic pressurethe pressure of an ultrasound beamto let specific molecules through. The study was published in the July issue of the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism.

"This is an important breakthrough in getting drugs delivered to specific parts of the brain precisely, non-invasively, and safely, and may help in the treatment of central nervous system diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's," says Konofagou, whose National Institutes of Health Research Project Grant (R01) funding was just renewed for another four years for an additional $2.22 million. The award is for research to determine the role of the microbubble in controlling both the efficacy and safety of drug safety through the BBB with a specific application for treating Parkinson's disease.

Most smalland all largemolecule drugs do not currently penetrate the blood-brain barrier that sits between the vascular bed and the brain tissue. "As a result," Konofagou explains, "all central nervous system diseases remain undertreated at best. For example, we know that Parkinson's disease would benefit by delivery of therapeutic molecules to the neurons so as to impede their slow death. But because of the virtually impermeable barrier, these drugs can only reach the brain through direct injection and that requires anesthesia and drilling the skull while also increasing the risk of infection and limiting the number of sites of injection. And transcranial injections rarely workonly about one in ten is successful."

Focused ultrasound in conjunction with microbubblesgas-filled bubbles coated by protein or lipid shellscontinues to be the only technique that can permeate the BBB safely and non-invasively. When microbubbles are hit by an ultrasound beam, they start oscillating and, depending on the magnitude of the pressure, continue oscillating or collapse. While researchers have found that focused ultrasound in combination with microbubble cavitation can be successfully used in the delivery of therapeutic drugs across the BBB, almost all earlier studies have been limited to one specific-sized agent that is commercially available and widely used clinically as ultrasound contrast agents. Konofagou and her team were convinced there was a way to induce a size-controllable BBB opening, enabling a more effective method to improve localized brain drug delivery.

Konofagou targeted the hippocampus, the memory center of the brain, and administered different-sized sugar molecules (Dextran). She found that higher acoustic pressures led to larger molecules accumulating into the hippocampus as confirmed by fluorescence imaging. This demonstrated that the pressure of the ultrasound beam can be adjusted depending on the size of the drug that needs to be delivered to the brain: all molecules of variant sizes were able to penetrate the opened barrier but at distinct pressures, i.e., small molecules at lower pressures and larger molecules at higher pressures.

"Through this study, we've been able to show, for the first time, that we can control the BBB opening size through the use of acoustic pressure," says Konofagou. "We've also learned much more about the physical mechanisms associated with the trans-BBB delivery of different-sized agents, and understanding the BBB mechanisms will help us to develop agent size-specific focused ultrasound treatment protocols."

Konofagou and her Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging Laboratory team plan to continue to work on the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's in a range of models, and hope to test their technique in clinical trials within the next five years.

"It is frightening to think that in the 21st century we still have no idea now to treat most brain diseases," Konofagou adds. "But we're really excited because we now have a tool that could potentially change the current dire predictions that come with a neurological disorder diagnosis."


'/>"/>
Contact: Holly Evarts
holly.evarts@columbia.edu
347-453-7408
Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. A new non-invasive cancer test expands laboratory.
2. Breath analysis offers non-invasive method to detect early lung cancer
3. Groundbreaking Anti-Aging Facials from Supreme Skin, An Asheville, NC Company Utilizes Non-Invasive DNA Repair to Infuse Skin with Vibrant Health
4. SpaHub Discusses New Non-Invasive Fat Reduction Technology in the Market
5. New Velashape Cellulite Reduction Sessions from Dr. Kathy Gohar’s Renowned Spa in Los Angeles are Proving to Be a Popular, Non-Invasive Procedure
6. Expert San Diego Dermatologist Discusses Non-Invasive Botox for Crow's Feet and Forehead Wrinkles in New Video
7. American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery Issues Warning Against Non-Invasive Bargain Procedures
8. Molecular Imaging, Inc. Announces New Webinar: Advancing Discovery and Development of Biologics Through Non-Invasive Biodistribution Imaging
9. Cranbrook, BC Aesthetic Dentist, Dr. Jeffrey Williams Introduces Veneers for Dramatic, Non-Invasive Smile Makeovers
10. iHeal Launched as Non-Invasive Healing Treatment
11. Sidelined By Plantar Fasciitis? Try a New Solution: J Wedge Offers Inexpensive, Non-Invasive Relief for Foot Pain Sufferers
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
New non-invasive technique controls size of molecules penetrating the blood-brain barrier
(Date:3/29/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... March 29, 2017 , ... In the ... to 300,000 people each year develop other types of metastatic brain tumors(3). Though most ... the brain(3). As efforts focus on finding more effective treatment options, the San ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... Massachusetts (PRWEB) , ... March 30, 2017 , ... Youth ... had great success and feedback from high school and college students who have participated ... being held July 7-23 and YFI is now accepting applications for enrollment. Visit ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... , ... March 29, 2017 , ... ... with or without a referral to new patients from Burnaby, BC. Patients in ... other full mouth reconstruction services, can see the esteemed team at Wall Centre ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... ... March 29, 2017 , ... ... and other outpatient facilities, and who are the most active developers? , ... Revista and Healthcare Real Estate Insights (HREI) found that outpatient medical real estate ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... ... March 29, 2017 , ... The assembly of synthetic DNA ... many repetitive steps and often scientists require many different versions of DNA. Therefore, ... results in a lower error rate and cost saving for reagents and consumables. ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:3/29/2017)... 2017 Research and Markets has announced ... & Forecast By Type (Insource IONM, Outsource IONM), By Region ... their offering. ... The global Intraoperative Neuromonitoring (IONM) market is expected ... market is anticipated to witness significant growth in the forecast ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... Research and Markets has announced the addition ... their offering. ... The global gas chromatograph market to grow at a CAGR of ... Gas Chromatograph Market 2017-2021, has been prepared based on an in-depth ... market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years. The ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... HANOVER, N.J. , March 29, 2017 /PRNewswire/ ... Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted the company,s Biologics ... for CTL019 (tisagenlecleucel-T), an investigational chimeric antigen receptor ... (r/r) pediatric and young adult patients with B-cell ... BLA submission by Novartis for a CAR-T. The ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: