Navigation Links
New insights could lead to a better pneumococcal vaccine
Date:9/22/2008

Discovery of a new, previously unknown mechanism of immunity suggests that there may be a better way to protect vulnerable children and adults against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal) infection, say researchers at Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH). The findings, published in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens on September 19, may aid the development of novel pneumococcal vaccines. (The current vaccine, Prevnar, is expensive and covers only 7 of the 91 known pneumococcal strains.)

Pneumococcus causes serious infections in children and the elderly, including pneumonia and meningitis (inflammation of the brain). Since 2000, U.S. infants have been routinely immunized against pneumococcus, but most developing countries (where nearly one million children die from pneumococcal infections annually) cannot afford the existing vaccine.

Richard Malley, MD, of Children's Division of Infectious Diseases, and Marc Lipsitch, D. Phil., of HSPH have been studying how natural immunity against pneumococcus develops, and have shown that in addition to antibodies, T-cells can provide broad protection against this pathogen. In this new study, Malley and Lipsitch identify the specific protective T-cells so-called TH17 cells and show that they protect against infection by releasing IL-17, a protein that enables human blood cells to kill pneumococcus in the nose more efficiently. This is significant, since colonizing a person's nose is the first necessary step of infection.

Researchers had known that children, as they get older, carry pneumococcus in the nose for shorter periods of time and have less risk of disease, but it hadn't been known how this resistance develops. Malley, Lipsitch and their colleagues now show that adults and older children, but not newborn babies, have TH17 cells that target pneumococci, suggesting that exposure to pneumococcus normally leads to production of these cells. In mice, they show directly that exposure to pneumococcus triggers the development of these T cells and shortens the duration of nasal carriage of the pathogen.

The investigators also describe an efficient way of measuring TH17 cells, which could help determine whether a new vaccine is rallying an effective response. "We are now evaluating vaccine candidates and changing them so they not only induce antibodies, but also induce this specific type of immunity," says Malley. "A vaccine that induces both protective antibodies and T-cell immunity to pneumococcus may be a very effective way to protect against this potentially devastating disease."

Malley's own lab is developing an inexpensive whole-cell pneumococcal vaccine that elicits a robust TH17 response in mice. With support from the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), a nonprofit group funded in part by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the vaccine is being manufactured for future human testing by Instituto Butantan, a manufacturer in Brazil. Malley's laboratory is testing various forms of the vaccine in animals, including nasal and oral versions. The advantage of a whole-cell vaccine is that it can broadly protect against all pneumococcal strains and would be very inexpensive to produce and administer.

Malley believes the ability to induce protective T-cell responses may have relevance for other infections of childhood, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae. Such responses are also being evaluated in pathogens against which antibodies are ineffective, such as herpes simplex, malaria and tuberculosis.


'/>"/>

Contact: Keri Stedman
keri.stedman@childrens.harvard.edu
617-919-3110
Children's Hospital Boston
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Study offers new insights into teenagers and anxiety disorders
2. Baird Hosts Small Cap Health Care Conference : Senior Healthcare Distribution & Services Research Analyst Eric Coldwell Shares Insights on Sector
3. Mayo Clinic Experts Offer Insights on Olympians
4. MedInsights, Inc. Selects Douglas Young as VP - Sales & Product Development
5. Circulating Tumor Cells Reveal Insights Into Lung Cancers
6. Leaders Develop Leaders: Insights from Global Benchmarking Councils 10th Annual Human Resources Conference
7. CVS Caremark to Present Insights on Redefining the Consumer Health Care Experience at AHIP Institute 2008
8. Parks Associates Analysts Present Insights on Broadband, Digital Content, Advertising, Home Systems, and Digital Health at CONNECTIONS(TM)
9. Chemstar Corporation Publishes New Insights on Fresh Produce Safety From CFP Workshop
10. Insights into cancer earn Premiers Award Commendation
11. Health Care Leaders Gather to Gain New Safety, Risk Management Insights From Aviation Industry Experts
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:2/5/2016)... New York, New York (PRWEB) , ... February 05, 2016 , ... ... in gym use and find themselves having to wait longer to access the treadmills. ... on their New Year’s resolutions to lose weight and get in shape by joining ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... Atlanta, Georgia (PRWEB) , ... February 05, 2016 , ... ... pleased to announce their 2nd Annual No Cost Dental Day to individuals in need. ... 4pm. The purpose of this No Cost Dental Day is to provide dental care ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... ... and wellness is a topic that should concern all Americans; however, it tends to ... are a severe form of a headache and often are accompanied by many various ... their worst enemy, the feeling can last for many hours and be totally debilitating. ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... February 05, 2016 , ... –This week, Atascadero water heater company ... a tankless water heater. To view the report, click here or see ... While each has their pros and cons, the type chosen is almost entirely up ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... ... February 04, 2016 , ... American Addiction ... and the start of Project HoldSpace. Through the partnership, the two organizations seek ... of youth between the ages of 13 and 18. Currently focused on Ohio ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/5/2016)... in Alabama seeking prostate care with ... have to travel out of state. Vituro Health ... of Alabama to provide a total prostate management program ... Alabama is known throughout the ... using many different modalities. They are the largest and one ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... February 5, 2016 --> ... report states that the global active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) ... predicted to reach US$185.9 bn by 2020. It is ... 2014 to 2020. The title of the report is ... by Geography, and by Therapeutic Area) - Global Industry ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... HARROGATE, England , February 5, 2016 ... --> Today, VoicePower Ltd - The Speech Recognition People, ... has been deployed to improve patient care, reduce turnaround times and ... ,- Wirral CCG ,- VoicePower client since 2013 Challenge: ... Challenge: --> - Six doctors ,- Wirral ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: