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New Clues to How HIV Infects Body's Cells
Date:8/1/2012

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Helper T-cells normally support the immune system, but a new study involving mice shows HIV-infected T-cells help transport the virus throughout the body and infect other T-cells.

Researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital said their findings could lead to improved treatments that could help control the movement of infected T-cells in the body.

"We have found that HIV disseminates in the body of an infected individual by 'hitching a ride' on the T-cells it infects," study author Dr. Thorsten Mempel, of the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, said in a hospital news release.

The researchers examined the behavior of HIV-infected human T-cells using a "humanized" mouse model, which has an essentially human immune system, according to the release.

After confirming that human T-cells enter and migrate within the animals' lymph nodes, the researchers injected them with HIV engineered to give off a green fluorescent protein, which allowed them to monitor the movement of infected cells.

They found that within two days, the HIV-infected T-cells moved more slowly than healthy T-cells. They also were evenly distributed within the lymph node, but they remained close to the injection site.

"Infected T-cells continue doing what they usually do -- migrating within and between tissues such as lymph nodes -- and in doing so they carry HIV to remote locations that the virus could not reach as easily," Mempel said. "There are drugs that can manipulate the migration of T-cells that potentially could be used to help control the spread of virus within a patient."

Ten percent to 20 percent of the HIV-infected T-cells formed long, thin extensions that trailed behind the moving cells. These elongated cells contained the HIV envelope protein, which researchers thought might cause infected cells to "tether" to uninfected cells and fo
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