Navigation Links
Neural precursor cells induce cell death in certain brain tumors
Date:7/23/2012

Neural precursor cells (NPC) in the young brain suppress certain brain tumors such as high-grade gliomas, especially glioblastoma (GBM), which are among the most common and most aggressive tumors. Now researchers of the Max Delbrck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch and Charit Universittsmedizin Berlin have deciphered the underlying mechanism of action with which neural precursor cells protect the young brain against these tumors. They found that the NPC release substances that activate TRPV1 ion channels in the tumor cells and subsequently induce the tumor cells to undergo stress-induced cell-death. (Nature Medicine http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.2827)*.

Despite surgery, radiation or chemotherapy or even a combination of all three treatment options, there is currently no cure for glioblastoma. In an earlier study the research group led by Professor Helmut Kettenmann (MDC) showed that neural precursor cells migrate to the glioblastoma cells and attack them. The neural precursor cells release a protein belonging to the family of BMP proteins (bone morphogenetic protein) that directly attacks the tumor stem cells. The current consensus of researchers is that tumor stem cells are the actual cause for continuous tumor self-renewal.

Kristin Stock, Jitender Kumar, Professor Kettenmann (all MDC), Dr. Michael Synowitz (MDC and Charit), Professor Rainer Glass (Munich University Hospitals, formerly MDC) and Professor Vincenzo Di Marzo (Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare Pozzuoli, Naples, Italy) now report a new mechanism of action of NPC in astrocytomas. Like glioblastomas, astrocytomas are brain tumors that belong to the family of gliomas. Gliomas are most common in older people and are almost invariably fatal.

As the MDC researchers showed, the NPC also migrate to the astrocytomas. There they do not secrete proteins, but rather release fatty-acid substances (endovanilloids) which are harmful to the cancer cells. However, in order to exert their lethal effect, the endovanilloids need the aid of a specific ion channel, the TRPV1 channel (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1), also called the vanilloid receptor 1. TRPV1 is already known to researchers as a transducer of painful stimuli. It has, among other things, a binding site for capsaicin, the irritant of hot chili peppers, and is responsible for the hot sensation after eating them. Clinical trials are currently underway to develop new pain treatments by blocking or desensitizing this ion channel.

MDC researchers describe an additional role of the TRPV1 ion channel

In contrast to its use in pain management, this ion channel, which is located on the surface of glioblastoma cells and is much more abundant there than on normal glial cells, must be activated to trigger cell death in gliomas. The activated ion channel mediates stress-induced cell-death in tumor cells. If however TRPV1 is downregulated or blocked, the glioma cells are not destroyed. The MDC researchers are thus the first to identify neural precursor cells as the source of fatty acids that induce tumor cell death and to describe the role of the TRPV1 ion channel in the fight against gliomas.

However, the activity of neural precursor cells in the brain and thus of the body's own protective mechanism against gliomas diminishes with increasing age. This could explain why these tumors usually develop in older adults and not in children and young people. How can the natural protection of neural precursor cells be harnessed for older brains? According to the researchers, neural precursor cell therapy is not a solution. The benefit this obviously brings in the treatment of young people can have the opposite effect in older adults and may trigger brain tumors.

One possible treatment would be to use drugs to activate the TRPV1 channels. In mice, the group showed that a synthetic substance (arvanil), which is similar to capsaicin, reduced tumor growth. However, this substance has not yet been approved as a drug because the adverse side effects for humans are too severe. It is only used in basic research on mice, which tolerate the substance well. "In principle, however," the researchers suggest, "synthetic vanilloid compounds may have clinical potential for brain tumor treatment."


'/>"/>
Contact: bachtler@mdc-berlin.de
bachtler@mdc-berlin.de
49-309-406-3896
Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. IBN discovers human neural stem cells with tumor targeting ability
2. Small neural focus groups predict anti-smoking ad success
3. Growing up as a neural stem cell: The importance of clinging together and then letting go
4. Charting autisms neural circuitry
5. New drug prevents spread of human prostate cancer cells
6. Tiny hitchhikers attack cancer cells
7. To prevent leukemias dreaded return, go for the stem cells
8. Scientists identify major source of cells defense against oxidative stress
9. Therapy exploits addiction of leukemia cells
10. Leukaemia cells have a remembrance of things past
11. Small molecular bodyguards kill HPV-infected cancer cells by protecting tumor-suppressor
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/29/2017)... Baltimore, MD (PRWEB) , ... April 29, 2017 , ... ... noisy jobs, so what are Americans doing in their leisure time that causes hearing ... assess lifestyle habits that may be contributing to hearing loss, as well as schedule ...
(Date:4/28/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... April 28, 2017 , ... ... its new partnership with the Home Care Association of America (HCAOA). This agreement ... Private Duty Accreditation services, as well as discounts on Accreditation University (AU) educational ...
(Date:4/28/2017)... ... April 28, 2017 , ... Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield ... credit rating of “A” and its outlook as “stable.” At the same time, the ... have fallen in recent years, dip below “capital adequacy” thresholds required for its strong ...
(Date:4/28/2017)... ... April 28, 2017 , ... ... tubes . These lamps offer an instant energy-saving solution for F32T8 fluorescent lamps ... fixtures or disconnect ballasts. These 50,000 hour rated lamps utilize the existing electronic ...
(Date:4/28/2017)... Texas (PRWEB) , ... April 28, 2017 , ... The ... plaque in recently to the labor and delivery team at Women’s Hospital at Renaissance ... mothers who give birth at the hospital and decide to donate. , “Women’s ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:4/19/2017)... 19, 2017 Global Prostate Cancer Therapeutics ... the prostate cancer therapeutics market analyzes the current ... prevalence of prostate cancer, launch of promising emerging ... of new drugs & therapeutic biological products, and ... to lesser side effects are some of the ...
(Date:4/19/2017)... The Global Effective Microorganisms (EM) Market by Manufacturers, ... and analysed the potential of Global Effective Microorganisms (EM) Market ... growth factors. The report identifies and analyses the emerging trends ... market. ... and Figures, 6 Major Company Profiles, spread across 124 pages ...
(Date:4/19/2017)... Companion animal vaccines ... pets such as canine, avian and feline. ... such as Attenuated Live Vaccines, Conjugate Vaccines, Inactivated ... Recombinant Vaccines. Attenuated live vaccines are derived from ... have been weakend under laboratory conditions. Conjugate vaccines ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: