Navigation Links
Nanoemulsion vaccines show increasing promise
Date:2/26/2008

ANN ARBOR, Mich. A novel technique for vaccinating against a variety of infectious diseases using an oil-based emulsion placed in the nose, rather than needles has proved able to produce a strong immune response against smallpox and HIV in two new studies.

The results build on previous success in animal studies with a nasal nanoemulsion vaccine for influenza, reported by University of Michigan researchers in 2003.

Nanoemulsion vaccines developed at the Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and the Biological Sciences at U-M are based on a mixture of soybean oil, alcohol, water and detergents emulsified into ultra-small particles smaller than 400 nanometers wide, or 1/200th the width of a human hair. These are combined with part or all of the disease-causing microbe to trigger the bodys immune response.

A team led by U-M scientist James Baker Jr., M.D., the institutes director, pioneered the technology, for which a patent was recently awarded to U-M.

The two studies show the nanoemulsion platform is capable of developing vaccines from very diverse materials. We used whole virus in the smallpox vaccine. In the HIV vaccine, we used a single protein. We were able to promote an immune response using either source, says Baker.

The technology is licensed to NanoBio Corp., an Ann Arbor-based biotech company which Baker founded in 2000 and in which he has a financial interest. Baker is the Ruth Dow Doan Professor of internal medicine and Allergy Division chief at the U-M Medical School.

The surface tension of the nanoparticles disrupts membranes and destroys microbes but does not harm most human cells due to their location within body tissues. Nanoemulsion vaccines are highly effective at penetrating the mucous membranes in the nose and initiating strong and protective types of immune response, Baker says. U-M researchers are also exploring nasal nanoemulsion vaccines to protect against bioterrorism agents and hepatitis B.

Potential for a better smallpox vaccine

The smallpox results, which appear in the February issue of Clinical Vaccine Immunology, could lead to an effective human vaccine against smallpox that is safer than the present live-vaccinia virus vaccine because it would use nanoemulsion-killed vaccinia virus, says Baker.

Anna U. Bielinska, Ph.D., a research assistant professor in internal medicine at the U-M Medical School, and others on Bakers research team developed a killed-vaccinia virus nanoemulsion vaccine which they placed in the noses of mice to trigger an immune response. They found the vaccine produced both mucosal and antibody immunity, as well as Th1 cellular immunity, an important measure of protective immunity.

When the mice were exposed to live vaccinia virus to test the vaccines protective effect, all of them survived, while none of the unvaccinated control mice did. The researchers conclude that the nanoemulsion vaccinia vaccine offers protection equal to that of the existing vaccine, without the risk of using a live virus or the need for an inflammatory adjuvant such as alum hydroxide.

We found that the nanoemulsion vaccine could inactivate and kill the virus and then subsequently induce immunity to the virus that includes cellular immunity, antibody immunity and mucosal immunity, Baker says.

In antibody immunity, antibodies bind invading microbes as they circulate through the body. In cellular immunity, the immune system attacks invaders inside infected cells. There is growing interest in vaccines that induce mucosal immunity, in which the immune system stops and kills the invader in mucous membranes before it enters body systems.

A National Institutes of Health program, the Great Lakes Regional Centers of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, funded the research. If the federal government conducts further studies and finds the nanoemulsion smallpox vaccine effective in people, it could be a safer way to protect citizens and health care workers in the event of a bioterrorism attack involving smallpox, Baker says.

That would allay concerns about the current vaccines safety which arose in 2002. On the eve of the Iraq War, the Bush administration proposed a voluntary program to vaccinate military personnel and 500,000 health care workers with the existing vaccine to prepare for the possible use of smallpox virus as a biological weapon.

Relatively few health care workers volunteered to get the vaccine, amid concerns that the live vaccinia virus used in the vaccine can be transmitted to other people for a time and can pose a serious risk to people with weakened immune systems and certain skin conditions. As of mid-2007, more than 1.2 million military personnel received smallpox shots. Small percentages of those vaccinated subsequently have had heart and neurological adverse effects.

Early HIV study tests mucosal immunity

Bakers team has published results from a preliminary test of a nanoemulsion vaccines effectiveness against HIV in the February issue of AIDS Research Human Retroviruses.

It is becoming widely acknowledged that standard approaches to vaccines against HIV have not worked. Baker says the HIV nanoemulsion vaccine tested in the noses of mice in the study represents a different approach in the way it produces immunity and the type of immunity produced.

Vaccines administered in the nose are also able to induce mucosal immunity in the genital mucosa. Evidence is growing that HIV virus can infect the mucosal immune system.

Therefore, developing mucosal immunity may be very important for protection against HIV, Baker says, adding that previous vaccine approaches have not aimed to do that.

In the study, the nanoemulsion HIV vaccine showed it was able to induce mucosal immunity, cellular immunity and neutralizing antibody to various isolates of HIV virus. A protein used by the team, gp120, is one of the major binding proteins under study in other HIV vaccine approaches.

This was an exploratory study to see if further research is warranted, Baker says. His team plans further research to test the concept in animal models, potentially with whole viral vaccines or ones with multiple protein components.


'/>"/>

Contact: Anne Rueter
arueter@umich.edu
734-764-2220
University of Michigan Health System
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Tattooing Best Way to Deliver DNA Vaccines
2. New hospital standards needed for pediatric flu vaccines
3. Mercury in Childhood Vaccines Excreted Quickly
4. Childhood Vaccines Save Lives, March Of Dimes Says
5. National Cervical Cancer Coalition (NCCC) State Chapters to Provide Parents With Educational Forum to Discuss Cervical Cancer and HPV Vaccines
6. Vaccines for Ovarian and Breast Cancer in Early Trials
7. Schedules Revised for Flu, Meningitis Vaccines
8. New study suggests why vaccines directed against cancer, HIV dont work
9. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines can improve the lives of HIV-infected children
10. Study Shows Cholera Can be Controlled With Oral Vaccines
11. St. Jude finds molecule that could improve cancer vaccines and therapy for other diseases
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Nanoemulsion vaccines show increasing promise
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... 05, 2016 , ... US Sports Camps , official operators of Nike ... high-performance kids yoga training. ChildLight Yoga Studio is centrally situated in the picturesque New ... ChildLight Yoga Studio founder Lisa Flynn expresses her excitement, “We are thrilled to be ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... , ... Give To Cure today announced that it is working ... To Cure’s campaign that is crowdfunding clinical trials to help find cures faster for ... a smart device. In 2015 alone, Venmo processed $7.5 billion in transactions among users. ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... ... Dr. Justin Scott and Dr. Lydia Muccioli of Pure Dental Health ... in need. The event is scheduled to take place on February 27, 2016 from ... dental care to community members in need. Each patient will be given the opportunity ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... February 05, 2016 , ... In sleep, when the defenses of ... A hallmark feature of patients with eating disorders is significant self-criticism, and consequently these ... and obsessions are regarded as maladaptive means for coping with this unease, but also ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... , ... February 05, 2016 , ... Calls Blacklist has ... completely new user interface design and the developer has fixed known bugs within the ... want to on their phone while not consuming any of their device’s battery power ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/5/2016)... N.Y. , Feb. 5, 2016  Henry Schein, ... health care products and services to office-based dental, animal ... entered into an agreement to acquire a majority ownership ... supplies and equipment in Brazil . ... Headquartered in Blumenau, Brazil, Dental Cremer is the dental distribution ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... For hospitals considering enrollment in the Federal ... the program, the Health Resources and Services Administration,s (HRSA) ... Mega-Guidance , could have significant impact on plans and ... 2016. Essential Insights , Daniel Neal, ... the Mega-Guidance,s key proposed changes, including a new requirement ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... 4, 2016   Bernstein Liebhard LLP today announced ... United States District Court for the District of ... consisting of all persons or entities who purchased common shares ... INSY ) from March 3, 2015 through January 25, 2016 ... its officers with violations of the Securities Exchange Act of ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: