Navigation Links
NIH scientists unveil mechanisms of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
Date:11/10/2010

WHAT: Newly published research by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, sheds light on a poorly understood, acute illness called Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) that develops in some HIV-infected individuals soon after they begin antiretroviral therapy.

IRIS affects certain HIV-infected individuals whose immune systems are heavily damaged by the virus and who have a treated or undiagnosed AIDS-associated infection. When these individuals start antiretroviral therapy and their immune cells begin to regenerate, the immune system unexpectedly produces an exaggerated response that unmasks or worsens the symptoms of the co-infection. IRIS has become a notable challenge in treating HIV disease, particularly in resource-limited settings. The scientists hope that better understanding how and why the syndrome occurs will lead to targeted prevention or therapy.

To find immunologic patterns that distinguish individuals who develop IRIS from those who do not, the researchers analyzed blood samples from HIV-infected individuals, focusing their analysis on a group of immune cells called T lymphocytes. Most of the studied patients had an AIDS-associated fungal, viral or bacterial infection before they started antiretroviral therapy.

The analysis showed that the individuals who developed IRIS had a higher proportion of activated T cells before starting antiretroviral therapy compared with those who did not develop IRIS. These activated T cells had the propensity to make a key infection-fighting molecule called interferon gamma both before therapy began and during IRIS episodes, suggesting that the cells may participate in the exaggerated immune response seen during IRIS. In addition, the surface markers expressed by the T cellssome with a stimulatory effect and some restraining in naturesuggested they were highly activated as a result of an encounter with the microbes co-infecting the HIV-infected individuals.

A companion study describes a new animal model that can be used to directly analyze the immunologic mechanisms that cause IRIS. This model employs mice infected with Mycobacterium avium, a pathogen frequently seen in HIV-infected individuals who develop IRIS. To mimic the immunologic condition of IRIS-susceptible HIV-infected individuals, the researchers began with mycobacterium-infected mice that had extremely low numbers of T cells. The scientists found that rebuilding the population of T cells in these mice, as usually occurs during antiretroviral therapy in humans, triggered an IRIS-like disease. In addition, the researchers observed that interferon-gamma production by the repopulating T cells in the mice clearly facilitated the development of experimentally induced IRIS. The study also implicated a type of immune cell known as a macrophage in sparking IRIS in the mice.


'/>"/>

Contact: Laura Sivitz Leifman
sivitzl@niaid.nih.gov
301-402-1663
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Scientists Use Tarantulas to Explore Human Fear
2. Scientists Say Theyve Made Blood From Skin
3. Hospital for Special Surgery scientists share advances in lupus and related conditions
4. Scientists develop method to keep surgically-removed prostate tissue alive and working for week
5. Scientists turn a new leaf to discover a compound in daffodils that targets brain cancer
6. Scientists Report Early Success in Growing Mini Liver in Lab
7. Scientists seek urgent treatment for fatal sleeping sickness
8. Scientists investigate evolution of new polio virus
9. Scientists Raise Concerns About Flame Retardants
10. Scientists pinpoint gene linked to drug resistance in malaria
11. NIH scientists describe how salmonella bacteria spread in humans
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/28/2017)... ... June 28, 2017 , ... The parent company ... in employee engagement. Omaha-based C&A Industries, a national leader in staffing and ... in North America for 2017. The annual award, issued by Achievers, ...
(Date:6/28/2017)... Church, VA (PRWEB) , ... June 28, 2017 , ... ... http://www.fdanews.com/fdaeumdregs      , No matter on which side of the Atlantic devicemakers ... medical device regulations they have to follow. , In addition to the full text ...
(Date:6/28/2017)... ... June 28, 2017 , ... Eating disorders have the highest mortality ... at least one person dies as a direct result from an eating disorder in ... qualified treatment providers. The iaedp Foundation meets this challenge by offering what has become ...
(Date:6/28/2017)... ... June 28, 2017 , ... American Farmer proudly announces the participation of ... winning television series, scheduled to broadcast fourth quarter 2017. American Farmer airs Tuesdays at ... supplier of garden pea seed. As demand grew, the small company located in Moscow, ...
(Date:6/28/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... June 28, 2017 , ... ... insurance management and financial planning assistance to clients in southern Montana, is announcing ... offered by Zoo Montana. , The outreach programs offered by Zoo Montana provide ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/7/2017)... , June 7, 2017  Novavax, Inc., (Nasdaq: ... of two Phase 2 trials of its RSV F protein ... child bearing age have been published in the journal ... have been shared in prior scientific conferences). The Company previously ... April 2014. Novavax is developing the RSV F Vaccine with ...
(Date:6/2/2017)... Mass. , June 2, 2017  NxStage Medical, ... renal care, today announced new findings demonstrating positive biochemical ... ® System One™. The data will be presented ... in Madrid, Spain . ... to Improve Home Dialysis Network in Europe ...
(Date:5/29/2017)...  Cellect Biotechnology Ltd. (NASDAQ: APOP ; TASE: ... functional selection of stem cells, today provided a corporate ... ended March 31 st , 2017. ... first quarter of 2017," said Dr. Shai Yarkoni, Chief ... treatment of the first blood cancer patient in the ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: