Navigation Links
NIH scientists unveil mechanisms of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
Date:11/10/2010

WHAT: Newly published research by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, sheds light on a poorly understood, acute illness called Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) that develops in some HIV-infected individuals soon after they begin antiretroviral therapy.

IRIS affects certain HIV-infected individuals whose immune systems are heavily damaged by the virus and who have a treated or undiagnosed AIDS-associated infection. When these individuals start antiretroviral therapy and their immune cells begin to regenerate, the immune system unexpectedly produces an exaggerated response that unmasks or worsens the symptoms of the co-infection. IRIS has become a notable challenge in treating HIV disease, particularly in resource-limited settings. The scientists hope that better understanding how and why the syndrome occurs will lead to targeted prevention or therapy.

To find immunologic patterns that distinguish individuals who develop IRIS from those who do not, the researchers analyzed blood samples from HIV-infected individuals, focusing their analysis on a group of immune cells called T lymphocytes. Most of the studied patients had an AIDS-associated fungal, viral or bacterial infection before they started antiretroviral therapy.

The analysis showed that the individuals who developed IRIS had a higher proportion of activated T cells before starting antiretroviral therapy compared with those who did not develop IRIS. These activated T cells had the propensity to make a key infection-fighting molecule called interferon gamma both before therapy began and during IRIS episodes, suggesting that the cells may participate in the exaggerated immune response seen during IRIS. In addition, the surface markers expressed by the T cellssome with a stimulatory effect and some restraining in naturesuggested they were highly activated as a result of an encounter with the microbes co-infecting the HIV-infected individuals.

A companion study describes a new animal model that can be used to directly analyze the immunologic mechanisms that cause IRIS. This model employs mice infected with Mycobacterium avium, a pathogen frequently seen in HIV-infected individuals who develop IRIS. To mimic the immunologic condition of IRIS-susceptible HIV-infected individuals, the researchers began with mycobacterium-infected mice that had extremely low numbers of T cells. The scientists found that rebuilding the population of T cells in these mice, as usually occurs during antiretroviral therapy in humans, triggered an IRIS-like disease. In addition, the researchers observed that interferon-gamma production by the repopulating T cells in the mice clearly facilitated the development of experimentally induced IRIS. The study also implicated a type of immune cell known as a macrophage in sparking IRIS in the mice.


'/>"/>

Contact: Laura Sivitz Leifman
sivitzl@niaid.nih.gov
301-402-1663
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Scientists Use Tarantulas to Explore Human Fear
2. Scientists Say Theyve Made Blood From Skin
3. Hospital for Special Surgery scientists share advances in lupus and related conditions
4. Scientists develop method to keep surgically-removed prostate tissue alive and working for week
5. Scientists turn a new leaf to discover a compound in daffodils that targets brain cancer
6. Scientists Report Early Success in Growing Mini Liver in Lab
7. Scientists seek urgent treatment for fatal sleeping sickness
8. Scientists investigate evolution of new polio virus
9. Scientists Raise Concerns About Flame Retardants
10. Scientists pinpoint gene linked to drug resistance in malaria
11. NIH scientists describe how salmonella bacteria spread in humans
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... ... The American Board of Family Medicine's (ABFM) Board of Directors has selected Warren ... James C. Puffer upon his retirement. Dr. Newton will serve in the position of ... end of 2018. Upon assuming the role of President and CEO on January 1, ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... N.Y (PRWEB) , ... October 13, 2017 , ... Lori ... became a member of ElderCounsel, a national organization of elder law and special needs ... changing laws and rules. It also provides a forum to network with elder law ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... NY (PRWEB) , ... October 13, 2017 , ... Ellevate ... people in business to advocate for action towards gender equality at their inaugural Summit ... from around the globe, and reached a social audience of over 3 million. To ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... Coveros, a leader in agile ... a contract by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The Enterprise ... use of Agile methodologies in a consistent and high value manner across CMS ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... sleep apnea using cutting-edge Oventus O2Vent technology. As many as 18 ... characterized by frequent cessation in breathing. Oral appliances can offer significant relief to ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/2/2017)... COPENHAGEN, Denmark , Oct. 2, 2017 The ... tool in the struggle to reverse the tide of prescription ... plan for regulating their medicine intake and stepping down their ... is set to launch in December 2017; the first 100,000 ... access. Learn more at http://www.rebound-solution.com/ ...
(Date:9/25/2017)... , Sept. 25, 2017   Montrium , ... File solutions, today—from the IQPC Trial Master Files ... , NL)—announced that EastHORN Clinical Services has selected ... programs and TMF management. EastHORN, a leading European ... platform to increase transparency to enable greater collaboration ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... 19, 2017 HistoSonics, Inc., a venture-backed medical device company developing a non-invasive, robotically ... announced three leadership team developments today:   ... ... Tom ... Veteran medical device executive Josh Stopek , PhD, who ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: