Navigation Links
Mutations impair childhood growth and development by disrupting organization of chromosome pairs
Date:5/29/2012

Researchers studying rare genetic disorders have uncovered insights into those diseases in biological structures that regulate chromosomes when cells divide. Focusing on the cohesin complex, a group of proteins forming a bracelet that encircles chromosome pairs, scientists have discovered mutations that disrupt cohesin, causing a recently recognized class of diseases called cohesinopathies.

"We are learning more about how these genetic abnormalities that affect cohesin play a role in human development," said study leader Matthew A. Deardorff, M.D., Ph.D., a specialist in pediatric genetics at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia's Center for Cornelia deLange Syndrome and Related Diagnoses.

The research, carried out in children, cell cultures, and zebrafish, appeared May 24 in the American Journal of Human Genetics. Deardorff's co-study leader was Frank J. Kaiser, Ph.D., of the University of Lubeck in Germany.

The cohesin complex is already known to be involved in Cornelia deLange syndrome (CdLS), a multisystem genetic disease affecting an estimated 1 in 10,000 children. The disease has a range of severity, but classically includes mental retardation, impaired growth, heart defects, feeding problems, deformed arms and hands, and distinctive facial features.

Researchers at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia previously were the first to discover gene mutations that cause CdLS, including forms of the disease with mental retardation and often severe limb abnormalities. The current study identified another gene, RAD21, that when mutated, causes very mild cognitive and physical impairments.

The study team first performed a genome-wide analysis of 101 children with typical CdLS and 189 children having overlapping features of the disease. None of the children had mutations in the three genes already known to cause CdLS. They identified a six-year-old boy with a deletion in a section of chromosome 8 that contains the RAD21 gene, which was known to express a cohesin protein but not previously known to cause disease. As an infant, the boy had been diagnosed with facial features similar to those of CdLS, and subsequently experienced growth retardation, but had normal cognitive development.

The researchers then focused on three additional children with deletions in RAD21 and two children with mutations within the gene, and found a similar patternphysical features, such as short stature and distinctive facial features, overlapping with some of those seen in cohesin disorders, but with only minor cognitive delays. "These findings suggest that children who are very mildly affected may go undiagnosed," said Deardorff.

The research team did further studies in cell cultures and a zebrafish model to investigate molecular mechanisms involved in cohesin disorders. The cohesin complex includes four proteins that join in a bracelet-like structure that surrounds sister chromatids, the identical pairs that result from chromosome duplication prior to cell division. RAD21, the protein expressed by the gene with the same name, forms a clasp that closes the bracelet. A mutated RAD21 gene weakens that clasp, impairing cohesion's normal abilities to repair damage to DNA.

However, Deardorff added, the lab research does not currently explain the full sequence of molecular events, and further studies will investigate knowledge gaps in the process.

As the cost of whole-genome sequencing is rapidly dropping, Deardorff expects researchers to discover additional genes involved in cohesinopathies, offering further clues to how these diseases function in human development. "For now we can expect that patients with the RAD21 mutation will be less severely affected than those with classical CdLS," he said. "As we better understand the mechanisms of these congenital diseases, we'll continue to seek opportunities to devise more effective treatments."


'/>"/>

Contact: John Ascenzi
ascenzi@email.chop.edu
267-426-6055
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Cancer may require simpler genetic mutations than previously thought
2. Scientists make breakthrough in bile duct cancer with discovery of new gene mutations
3. Researchers Find Gene Mutations That May Be a Key to Autism
4. Stealth properties of cancer-causing genetic mutations identified
5. Cancer sequencing initiative discovers mutations tied to aggressive childhood brain tumors
6. Mutations in 2 Genes Linked to Rare Autism-Related Disorder
7. Gene Mutations May Boost Ovarian Cancer Survival: Study
8. Gene Mutations Linked to Thyroid Cancer Risk: Study
9. Massive DNA search uncovers new mutations driving blood cancer
10. Panel of melanoma mutations opens door to new treatment possibilities
11. Linking of mutations in 12 genes to ovarian cancer may lead to more effective prevention
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Mutations impair childhood growth and development by disrupting organization of chromosome pairs
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... Experts from the ... AcademyHealth’s Annual Research Meeting June 26-28, 2016, at the Hynes Convention Center in ... topics including advance care planning, healthcare costs and patient and family engagement. , ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... 2016 , ... "With 30 hand-drawn hand gesture animations, FCPX users can easily ... of Pixel Film Studios. , ProHand Cartoon’s package transforms over 1,300 hand-drawn pictures ... . Simply select a ProHand generator and drag it above media or text in ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... Dr. Calvin Johnson ... Recently, he has implemented orthobiologic procedures as a method for treating his patients. ... the first doctors to perform the treatment. Orthobiologics are substances that orthopaedic surgeons ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... , ... June 24, 2016 , ... A recent ... most people are unfamiliar with. The article goes on to state that individuals are ... many of these less common operations such as calf and cheek reduction. The Los ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... in a crisis. Her son James, eight, was out of control. Prone to extreme mood ... something upset him, he couldn’t control his emotions,” remembers Marcy. “If there was a ... children and say he was going to kill them. If we were driving on ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... , June 24, 2016  Global Blood ... biopharmaceutical company developing novel therapeutics for the treatment ... today announced the closing of its previously announced ... stock, at the public offering price of $18.75 ... offering were offered by GBT. GBT estimates net ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ALEXANDRIA, Va. , June 24, 2016 ... a set of recommendations that would allow ... information (HCEI) with entities that make formulary and coverage ... determine the "value" of new medicines. The ... that does not appear on the drug label, a ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... PUNE, India , June 24, 2016 ... "Pen Needles Market by Type (Standard Pen Needles, Safety ... 12mm), Therapy (Insulin, GLP-1, Growth Hormone), Mode of Purchase ... published by MarketsandMarkets, This report studies the market for ... is expected to reach USD 2.81 Billion by 2021 ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: