Navigation Links
More clues about why chimps and humans are genetically different
Date:8/23/2012

Ninety-six percent of a chimpanzee's genome is the same as a human's. It's the other 4 percent, and the vast differences, that pique the interest of Georgia Tech's Soojin Yi. For instance, why do humans have a high risk of cancer, even though chimps rarely develop the disease?

In research published in September's American Journal of Human Genetics, Yi looked at brain samples of each species. She found that differences in certain DNA modifications, called methylation, may contribute to phenotypic changes. The results also hint that DNA methylation plays an important role for some disease-related phenotypes in humans, including cancer and autism.

"Our study indicates that certain human diseases may have evolutionary epigenetic origins," says Yi, a faculty member in the School of Biology. "Such findings, in the long term, may help to develop better therapeutic targets or means for some human diseases. "

DNA methylation modifies gene expression but doesn't change a cell's genetic information. To understand how it differs between the two species, Yi and her research team generated genome-wide methylation maps of the prefrontal cortex of multiple humans and chimps. They found hundreds of genes that exhibit significantly lower levels of methylation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain. Most of them were promoters involved with protein binding and cellular metabolic processes.

"This list of genes includes disproportionately high numbers of those related to diseases," said Yi. "They are linked to autism, neural-tube defects and alcohol and other chemical dependencies. This suggests that methylation differences between the species might have significant functional consequences. They also might be linked to the evolution of our vulnerability to certain diseases, including cancer."

Yi, graduate student Jia Zeng and postdoctoral researcher Brendan Hunt worked with a team of researchers from Emory University and UCLA. The Yerkes National Primate Research Center provided the animal samples used in the study. It was also funded by the Georgia Tech Fund for Innovation in Research and Education (GT-FIRE) and National Science Foundation grants (MCB-0950896 and BCS-0751481). The content is solely the responsibility of the principal investigators and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NSF.


'/>"/>

Contact: Jason Maderer
maderer@gatech.edu
404-385-2966
Georgia Institute of Technology
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. New Clues to How Alcohol May Boost Cancer Risk
2. Genetic Studies Give Clues to Tourette Syndrome, OCD
3. Why Women Outlive Men: Fruit Flies Give Clues
4. New Clues to How HIV Infects Bodys Cells
5. Scientists discover new clues explaining tendon injury
6. Fossilized Teeth Hold Clues to Early Human Species Diet
7. Researchers at IRB Barcelona uncover new clues about the origin of cancer
8. Amazon Tribe Gives Clues to Heart-Healthy Lifestyles
9. New Clues to the Evolution of the Human Brain
10. Geisel researchers sift through junk to find colorectal cancer clues
11. Clues to Slacker Behavior Found in Brain, Study Says
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:3/27/2017)... Michigan (PRWEB) , ... March 27, 2017 , ... ... The comprehensive weight management program at Women’s Excellence will help patients lose ... evaluation and physical exam. The specialists at Women's Excellence will measure BMI, ...
(Date:3/27/2017)... ... March 27, 2017 , ... The Association of Healthcare ... will hold their first Northeast Regional AHVAP Meeting. For 2017, Dr. Hayes will ... chain and value analysis professionals have a ‘seat at the table’ with clinical ...
(Date:3/27/2017)... ... March 27, 2017 , ... ... sodium testing methods are complicated and require expert user knowledge. In a live ... method dedicated to the simplified, yet highly accurate, determination of sodium. , It ...
(Date:3/27/2017)... ... March 27, 2017 , ... From 1999 to ... responsible for over 33,000 of the 52,404 drug-related deaths in 2015.(2) To combat ... which proposes a tax on prescription opioids to fund drug rehabilitation and prevention ...
(Date:3/25/2017)... ... 25, 2017 , ... Getting earned media coverage meaningful for Garden Media Group's ... through the year, Garden Media aims to provide material helpful to clients’ goals and ... pitching client’s key messages to gain coveted media placements, Garden Media wows clients ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:3/27/2017)...  Twist Bioscience, a company accelerating science and innovation ... raised an additional $33 million. To date, Twist Bioscience ... "It is an exciting time to be leading ... to deliver industry-leading gene volume to our customers, enabling ... Leproust, Ph.D., CEO of Twist Bioscience. "We welcome the ...
(Date:3/27/2017)... Arena Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: ... molecule drugs across multiple therapeutic areas, today announced that Amit ... present a corporate update at the 16th Annual Needham Healthcare ... will take place April 4-5, 2017 at the Westin New ... NY.  A live audio webcast of the ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... March 24, 2017 New England Pediatric Device ... an award including funding and in-kind service towards the ... "Making blood draws less traumatic for ... whole hospital experience better.  We,re looking forward to working ... help improve care for the kids we treat," said ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: