Navigation Links
Methylphenidate 'normalizes' activation in key brain areas in kids with ADHD
Date:5/9/2013

Philadelphia, Pa. (May 9, 2013) The stimulant drug methylphenidate "normalizes" activation of several brain areas in young patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a review published in the May Harvard Review of Psychiatry. The journal is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a part of Wolters Kluwer Health.

Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) show increased activation of key brain areas after a dose of methylphenidate in young patients with ADHD, according to the systematic review by Constance A. Moore, PhD, and colleagues of the University of Massachusetts Medical School. They write, "In most cases, this increase 'normalized' activation of at least some brain areas to levels seen in typically developing children."

How Do ADHD Medications Affect the Brain in ADHD Patients?

In a research review, Dr Moore and colleagues identified nine previous studies using fMRI to study patterns of brain activation in response to a single dose of methylphenidate. Perhaps best known by the brand name Ritalin, methylphenidate is a common and effective treatment for ADHD. "Although methylphenidate has been shown to significantly improve the behavioral symptoms associated with ADHD, both the mechanism behind its therapeutic effect and its direct effects on brain function are unknown," the researchers write.

The studies evaluated methylphenidate-induced fMRI changes in various brain areas, as the participants performed different types of tasks. Most of the studies included adolescent boys with ADHD, along with matched groups of young people without ADHD.

Methylphenidate altered activation patterns in widely distributed areas of the brain in ADHD patients, the results showed. The main brain areas involved were the frontal lobes, the basal ganglia, and cerebellum: "Abnormalities in these regions have all been implicated in patients with ADHD," Dr Moore and coauthors write.

Different areas were activated during different types of fMRI tasks. Several studies assessed performance on "inhibitory control" tasksthe ability to control certain types of accustomed ("prepotent") responses. In three out of five studies, methylphenidate "at least partially normalized" brain activation in ADHD patients, compared to healthy young people.

Different Tasks Affect Different Brain Areas

A few studies showed similar normalization of brain responses with methylphenidate on tasks of selective attention and time perceptionalthough not on tasks evaluating working memory. Methylphenidate mainly affected activation in the frontal lobes during inhibitory control tasks. During selective attention tasks, a wider range of brain areas were affected.

Since none of the studies evaluated ADHD symptoms on and off methylphenidate, there was no way to link the changes in brain activation with clinical improvement. Brain activation patterns with methylphenidate differed for patients who were versus were not previously treated with stimulants for ADHD.

Patients with ADHD have "age-inappropriate frequency or severity of inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive behaviors," according to the authors. It affects about five percent of children worldwide, and a growing body of evidence suggests that ADHD persists throughout adolescence and into adulthood. Functional fMRI provides a safe, noninvasive way to study how stimulants like methylphenidate may act in the brain of ADHD patients.

The new analysis suggests that methylphenidate partially normalizes activation in key brain areas thought to be involved in ADHD. The studies "may provide evidence that methylphenidate facilitates the return of brain function in ADHD patients to, or close to, a typically functioning state," Dr Moore and colleagues write. They call for further research to confirm that methylphenidate-induced changes in specific brain areas are correlated with improvement in ADHD symptoms.


'/>"/>

Contact: Connie Hughes
connie.hughes@wolterskluwer.com
646-674-6348
Wolters Kluwer Health
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Girls with eating disorders regain healthy fatty acid levels when their weight normalizes
2. Research reveals new understanding of X chromosome inactivation
3. HPV in older women may be due to reactivation of virus, not new infection
4. Same protein that fires up cancer-promoting Erk also blocks its activation
5. Study Suggests Vaccine May Help Kids With Brain Cancer
6. Epilepsy Leads to More Brain Abnormalities Over Time
7. UCLA Brain Injury Research Center gets NCAA funding for research on sports concussions
8. Why is traumatic brain injury increasing among the elderly?
9. Brain Falters Near End of Life, but Games, Puzzles Might Slow Decline
10. Dental X-Rays May Be Linked to Benign Brain Tumors
11. Nonsurgical Method to Measure Brain Pressure Shows Promise
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... While it’s often important to take certain ... inventor from Austin, Texas, has identified a solution. , She developed a prototype for ... lighting. As such, it eliminates the need to turn on a light when taking ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... ... Lori R. Somekh, founder of the Law Office of Somekh & Associates ... special needs planning attorneys. “Membership in ElderCounsel helps our office remain up to date ... elder law attorneys nationwide,” said Somekh. , ElderCounsel was founded by ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... Global Healthcare Management’s 4th Annual Kids Fun ... NJ. This free event, sponsored by Global Healthcare Management’s CEO, Jon Letko, is ... is geared towards children of all ages; it is a non-competitive, non-timed event, which ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... ... “America On The Brink”: the Christian history of the United States and the ... published author, William Nowers. Captain Nowers and his wife, Millie, have six children, ... in the Navy. Following his career as a naval aviator and carrier pilot, ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... IsoComforter, Inc. ( https://isocomforter.com ), one ... an innovative new design of the shoulder pad. The shoulder pad provides optimal ... controlling your pain while using cold therapy. By utilizing ice and water that is ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:9/27/2017)... for their devotion to personalized service, SMP Pharmacy Solutions announces ... the South Florida Business Journal,s 50 Fastest-Growing Companies, and listed ... national specialty pharmacy has found its niche.  To that end, ... honored by SFBJ as the 2017 Power Leader in Health ... his award in October, Bardisa said of the three achievements, ...
(Date:9/23/2017)... , Sept. 22, 2017 Janssen Biotech, ... complete response letter from the U.S. Food and Drug ... approval of sirukumab for the treatment of moderately to ... indicates additional clinical data are needed to further evaluate ... to severely active RA. ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... LOUISVILLE, Ky. , Sept. 19, 2017   ZirMed ... and predictive analytics, today announced that it has been ranked ... the Black Book™ Rankings 2017 User Survey. ZirMed ... software solution for large hospitals and medical centers over 200 ... in Black Book,s healthcare technology user survey history. ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: