Navigation Links
Maternal HIV-1 treatment protects against transmission to newborns
Date:10/16/2009

Mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to treat HIV-1 infection are less likely than untreated mothers to transmit the virus to their newborns through breastfeeding, according to a new study. The findings, now available online in the Nov. 15 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, suggest HAART regimens should be initiated as early as possible in eligible mothers in areas with limited resources, such as Africa, where most infant HIV-1 infections occur, and breastfeeding is common.

Led by Taha E. Taha, MBBS, PhD, of Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, the researchers studied 2,318 infant/mother pairs in Malawi; a total of 130 infants (about 6 percent) became HIV-1-infected. The protective effect of HAART was readily apparent: The therapy was associated with an 82 percent reduction in postnatal HIV-1 transmission. The reduction was observed in mothers with CD4 counts low enough to be eligible for HAART compared to mothers with low counts who did not receive the therapy. Among the infants who became HIV-1-infected, only five had mothers who were both eligible for HAART and actually received it, representing a transmission rate of 1.8 percent. In contrast, 53 infected infants had mothers who were HAART-eligible but who went untreated (a 10.6 percent transmission rate). Seventy-two other infected infants had mothers who were HAART-ineligible because their CD4 cell counts were consistently high (a 3.7 percent transmission rate).

While acknowledging more research is needed to develop safe, effective, and affordable ways to prevent postnatal transmission in settings with few resources, the study's authors recommend that women presenting late in pregnancy who have low CD4 counts and require antiretroviral treatment start HAART as soon as possible during pregnancy or postpartum. For women who do not need HAART for their own health because of a high CD4 countand who represented approximately 70 percent of the Malawi patients studiedthe investigators noted that the choices are unclear. The options include prolonged infant antiviral prophylaxis beyond 14 weeks of age or the institution of HAART in mothers who do not require the therapy according to current guidelines.

The authors had reported in 2008 that daily use of either nevirapine or nevirapine and zidovudine from birth up to the age of 14 weeks in breastfeeding infants of HIV-1-infected mothers reduced the rate of infant infection by 67 percent, compared to infants who received only a single dose of nevirapine and one week of zidovudine.

In an editorial accompanying the authors' latest article, Grace C. John-Stewart, MD, PhD, of the University of Washington School of Public Health, noted that programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV need to accelerate in many ways. Globally, there are still large gaps in HIV-1 testing and CD4 count availability, which are necessary to identify women infected with the virus and determine if HAART is right for them. "Recognizing the impact of prompt HAART initiation in eligible women and finding efficiencies in CD4 testing and delivery of HAART services will leverage antenatal HIV-1 testing to increase maternal survival and decrease infant infections," Dr. John-Stewart said.


'/>"/>

Contact: John Heys
jheys@idsociety.org
703-299-0412
Infectious Diseases Society of America
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Building the Next Generation of Global Leaders - Maternal Health Task Force and Ashoka Partner
2. Maternal/child health focus of African Science Academies meeting in Ghana Nov. 9-11
3. Cooperation Between Faith-Based Organizations and UNFPA Critical to Maternal Health, Say Groups
4. Strict maternal feeding practices not linked to child weight gain
5. New Initiative Poised To Reduce Maternal Mortality Rates By More Than 25 Percent
6. U.S. Maternal Health Program: Marks 20 Years of Support to Mothers and Childbearing Women
7. BD Extends Decade-Long Support for UNICEFs Campaign to Eliminate Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus
8. Maternal Depression Has Negative Effect on Infants Sleep
9. Institution of a bedtime routine improves sleep in infants and toddlers, maternal mood
10. Maternal depression is associated with significant sleep disturbance in infants
11. £2.8 million grant to raise standards in maternal and newborn health
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... June 26, 2016 , ... PawPaws brand pet supplements owned ... developed to enhance the health of felines. The formula is all-natural and is made ... in the PawPaws Cat Kidney Support Supplement Soft Chews are Astragalus Root ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... Austin residents seeking Mohs surgery ... of Mohs Surgery and to Dr. Russell Peckham for medical and surgical dermatology. , ... for skin cancer. The selective fellowship in Mohs Micrographic Surgery completed by Dr. Dorsey ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... 25, 2016 , ... As a lifelong Southern Californian, Dr. Omkar Marathe earned ... the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. He trained in Internal Medicine at ... fellowship in hematology/oncology at the UCLA-Olive View-Cedars Sinai program where he had the opportunity ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... A recent article ... people are unfamiliar with. The article goes on to state that individuals are now ... of these less common operations such as calf and cheek reduction. The Los Angeles ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... The Pulmonary ... Dallas that it will receive two significant new grants to support its work ... marked its 25th anniversary by recognizing patients, medical professionals and scientists for their ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016  MedSource announced today that it ... software solution of choice.  This latest decision demonstrates ... to their clients by offering a state-of-the-art electronic ... establishes nowEDC as the EDC platform of choice ... clients.  "nowEDC has long been a preferred EDC ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 Research ... "Pharmaceutical Excipients Market by Type (Organic Chemical (Sugar, Petrochemical, ... (Oral, Topical, Coating, Parenteral) - Global Forecast to 2021" ... The global pharmaceutical excipients market is ... a CAGR of 6.1% in the forecast period 2016 ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Research and Markets has announced the ... 2016 - Forecast to 2022" report to their offering. ... up to date financial data derived from varied research sources ... with potential impact on the market during the next five ... comprises of sub markets, regional and country level analysis. The ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: